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    国家人权行动计划(2012-2015年)中英文对照版

    时间:2012-06-12 来源: 新华网?????? 作者:??????

    国家人权行动计划(2012-2015年)中英文对照版

    时间:2012-06-12??????来源:新华网??????作者:??????点击:
    National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2012-2015)

     

    视频来源:中央电视台

     

      

     

    国家人权行动计划

    (2012-2015年)

    中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

    二〇一二年六月 北京

     

    目 录

    导 言

    一、经济、社会和文化权利

    (一)工作权利

    (二)基本生活水准权利

    (三)社会保障权利

    (四)健康权利

    (五)受教育权利

    (六)文化权利

    (七)环境权利

    二、公民权利和政治权利

    (一)人身权利

    (二)被羁押人的权利

    (三)获得公正审判的权利

    (四)宗教信仰自由

    (五)知情权

    (六)参与权

    (七)表达权

    (八)监督权

    三、少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人和残疾人的权利

    (一)少数民族权利

    (二)妇女权利

    (三)儿童权利

    (四)老年人权利

    (五)残疾人权利

    四、人权教育

    五、国际人权条约义务的履行和国际人权交流与合作

    (一)国际人权条约义务的履行

    (二)国际人权领域的交流与合作

    六、实施和监督

     

    National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2012-2015)

    Information Office of the State Council

    The People's Republic of China

     

    Contents

    Introduction

    I. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    (1) Right to work

    (2) Right to basic living standards

    (3) Right to social security

    (4) Right to health

    (5) Right to education

    (6) Cultural rights

    (7) Environmental rights

    II. Civil and Political Rights

    (1) Rights of the person

    (2) Rights of detainees

    (3) Right to a fair trial

    (4) Freedom of religious belief

    (5) Right to be informed

    (6) Right to participate

    (7) Right to be heard

    (8) Right to oversee

    III. Rights of Ethnic Minorities, Women, Children, the Elderly and the Disabled

    (1) Rights of ethnic minorities

    (2) Women's rights

    (3) Children's rights

    (4) Senior citizens' rights

    (5) Rights and interests of the disabled

    IV. Human Rights Education

    V. Fulfillment of Obligations to International Human Rights Conventions, and Exchanges and Cooperation in the Field of International Human Rights

    (1) Fulfillment of obligations to international human rights conventions

    (2) Exchanges and cooperation in the field of international human rights

    VI. Implementation and Supervision

     

     

    导 言

    制定国家人权行动计划是中国政府落实尊重和保障人权宪法原则的一项重大举措,对推动科学发展,促进社会和谐,努力实现全面建设小康社会宏伟目标,具有重要意义。

    自2009年《国家人权行动计划(2009-2010年)》颁布实施以来,中国公民的人权意识明显增强,经济、社会和文化权利保障得到全面加强,公民权利与政治权利保障更加有效,少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人和残疾人的权利得到进一步保障,国际人权领域交流与合作日益深化,各领域的人权保障在制度化、法治化的轨道上不断推进,中国人权事业的发展进入了一个新的阶段。《国家人权行动计划(2009-2010年)》的制定、实施和如期完成,得到人民群众的普遍欢迎和国际社会的广泛好评。

    近年来,中国政府坚持以人为本,妥善应对国际金融危机的巨大冲击和重大自然灾害的严峻挑战,积极解决发展中存在的矛盾和问题,坚定不移地推进人权事业,人权状况持续改善。坚持将保障人权与推动科学发展、促进社会和谐结合起来,不断完善保障和改善民生的制度安排,大力促进就业,加快发展多项社会事业,推进基本服务均等化,逐步健全覆盖城乡的社会保障体系,初步建立基本医疗卫生服务体系和覆盖全国城乡居民基本医疗卫生制度框架,不断发展文化教育事业,有效保障全体社会成员平等参与、平等发展的权利;坚持将保障人权与加强民主法治建设结合起来,积极稳妥推进政治体制改革,扩大公民有序政治参与,依法实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督,有力保障人民的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权;坚持将尊重和保障人权的原则贯穿于立法、行政和司法各个环节之中,加强对权力的监督和制约,中国特色社会主义法律体系已经形成,社会生活的各个领域和人权保障的各个方面实现了有法可依。

    应该看到,当今中国仍然是一个发展中国家,发展中不平衡、不协调、不可持续的问题依然突出,受自然、历史、文化、经济社会发展水平的影响和制约,中国人权事业的发展还面临诸多挑战,实现充分享有人权的崇高目标任重道远。

    2012-2015年是贯彻落实《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要》,深化改革开放、加快转变经济发展方式的攻坚时期,也是加强人权建设、实现人权事业快速发展的重要时期。为此,在认真总结经验的基础上,中国政府制定《国家人权行动计划(2012-2015年)》(简称《行动计划》),明确2012-2015年促进和保障人权的目标和任务。

    制定和实施《行动计划》的指导思想是:高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,结合实施《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要》,将人权事业与经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设以及生态文明建设结合起来,顺应各族人民过上更好生活的新期待,继续把保障人民的生存权、发展权放在首位,着力保障和改善民生,着力解决人民群众最关心、最直接、最现实的权利和利益问题,切实保障公民的经济、政治、社会和文化权利,促进社会更加公正、和谐,努力使每一个社会成员生活得更有尊严、更加幸福。

    制定和实施《行动计划》的基本原则是:

    ——依法推进原则。根据宪法关于“国家尊重和保障人权”的原则,遵循《世界人权宣言》和有关国际人权公约的基本精神,从立法、行政和司法各个环节完善尊重和保障人权的法律法规和实施机制,依法推进中国人权事业发展。

    ——全面推进原则。将各项人权作为相互依存、不可分割的有机整体,促进经济、社会、文化权利与公民权利、政治权利的协调发展,促进个人人权与集体人权的协调发展。

    ——务实推进原则。既尊重人权的普遍性原则,又坚持从中国的基本国情和新的实际出发,切实推进人权事业发展。

    实施《行动计划》的目标是:

    ——全面保障经济、社会和文化权利。采取积极措施,更有效地保障全体社会成员的工作权利、基本生活水准权利、社会保障权利、健康权利、受教育权利、文化权利、环境权利,努力使全体人民学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居,使发展成果更好地惠及全体人民。

    ——依法有效保障公民权利和政治权利。完善相关的法律法规,维护公民的基本权利;加强人权的司法保障,促进司法公正;发展社会主义民主政治,扩大公民有序政治参与,保障人民的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权。

    ——充分保障少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人和残疾人的合法权益。进一步保障少数民族享有经济、政治、社会、文化等方面的平等权益;努力促进性别平等,消除性别歧视;切实保障儿童的生存、发展、受保护和参与权利;完善老年人社会保障制度,加快推进老年人服务体系建设;发展残疾人事业,促进残疾人平等参与社会生活。

    ——广泛开展人权教育。继续开展对公务人员的人权培训;在各级各类学校开展多种形式的人权教育;在全社会普及人权知识,不断提高公民的人权意识。

    ——积极开展国际人权交流与合作。认真履行国际人权条约义务,深入参与联合国人权机制工作,继续在平等和相互尊重的基础上与各国开展人权对话、合作和交流。

    经国务院批准并授权,现将《国家人权行动计划(2012-2015年)》予以公布。

    Introduction

    The formulation of the National Human Rights Action Plan is an important measure taken by the Chinese government to ensure the implementation of the constitutional principle of respecting and safeguarding human rights. It is of great significance to promoting scientific development and social harmony, and to achieving the great objective of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way.

    Since the promulgation and enforcement of the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010) in 2009, the Chinese citizens' awareness of human rights has been enhanced significantly; the protection of the citizen's economic, social and cultural rights and interests has been comprehensively strengthened; their civil and political rights have been more effectively safeguarded; the rights of ethnic minorities, women, children, senior citizens and the disabled have been further protected; international exchanges and cooperation in the field of human rights have been increasingly deepened; and human rights protection in all aspects has been constantly advanced along the orbit of institutionalization and rule by law. The cause of human rights in China has entered a new stage of development. In addition, the formulation, implementation and completion on schedule of the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010) have been widely acclaimed by the Chinese public and highly regarded by the international community.

    In recent years, the Chinese government has appropriately addressed the heavy toll brought about by the international financial crisis and the severe challenges posed by major natural disasters, vigorously solved the problems in development, perseveringly advanced the cause of human rights by putting people first, and had its human rights conditions increasingly improved. The Chinese government has unswervingly combined safeguarding human rights with promoting scientific development and social harmony, kept improving its institutional arrangements for ensuring and improving its people's livelihood, vigorously boosted employment, speeded up the development of various social undertakings, promoted equal access to basic public services, gradually improved a social security system that covers both urban and rural areas, initially established a basic medical care and health service system benefiting both urban and rural residents, strived to develop cultural and educational undertakings, and effectively guaranteed the rights of all members of society to equal participation and development. The Chinese government has consistently combined protecting human rights with promoting democracy and the rule of law, actively and steadily pushed forward political reform, expanded citizens' orderly participation in political affairs, and carried out democratic election, decision-making, administration and supervision in accordance with the law to guarantee the people's rights to be informed, to participate, to be heard and to oversee. The Chinese government has integrated the principle of respecting and safeguarding human rights into its legislation, administration and law enforcement and strengthened supervision and restriction over the exercise of power. Consequently, a socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics has been established to provide legal support for all fields of social life and all aspects of human rights protection.

    It should be remembered that China remains a developing country that is fraught with problems from unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development. Due to the influences and limitations of natural, historical and cultural factors, as well as the current level of economic and social development, China still confronts many challenges in the development of its human rights cause and it has a long way to go before it attains the lofty goal of full enjoyment of human rights.

    The period 2012-2015 is a crucial period for implementing The Outline of the 12th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China, deepening reform and opening-up and accelerating the transformation of the country's economic development pattern; it is also an important period for enhancing human rights and ensuring rapid development of the human rights cause. Therefore, on the basis of earnestly summing up past experience, the Chinese government has worked out this National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2012-2015) (hereinafter referred to as the Action Plan) to specify its aims and tasks in promoting and protecting human rights in the 2012-2015 period.

    The Action Plan was formulated in accordance with the following guidelines: Holding high the flag of socialism with Chinese characteristics, taking Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of "Three Represents" as guidance and thoroughly applying the Scientific Outlook on Development. In combination with the implementation of The Outline of the 12th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People' s Republic of China, the Chinese government combines its human rights endeavors with economic, political, cultural, social and ecological construction. To satisfy the aspirations of its people of all ethnic groups for living a better life, it continuously prioritizes people's rights to subsistence and development, vigorously safeguards and improves people's livelihood, spares no efforts to solve the problems of the utmost and immediate concern to the people, practically safeguards the citizens' economic, political, social and cultural rights and promotes social equity and harmony, so as to ensure that every member of society live a happier and more dignified life.

    The Action Plan was formulated in line with the following basic principles:

    The principle of pushing forward the work according to law. In line with the constitutional principle that "the state respects and preserves human rights" and the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other relevant international conventions on human rights, the Action Plan sets out the goal of improving the laws and regulations and their implementation mechanisms for respecting and safeguarding human rights in legislation, administration and law enforcement, so as to promote the cause of human rights in China according to law.

    The principle of comprehensive advances. Taking all types of human rights as interdependent and inseparable, the Chinese government determines to promote the coordinated development of economic, social and cultural rights as well as civil and political rights, and the balanced development of individual and collective human rights.

    The principle of pursuing practicality. The Chinese government respects the principle of universality of human rights, but also upholds proceeding from China's national conditions and new realities to advance the development of its human rights cause on a practical basis.

    The objectives in the implementation of the Action Plan are as follows:

    Providing comprehensive protection to citizens' economic, social and cultural rights. The Chinese government will take proactive measures to protect more effectively the rights of all members of society to employment, basic living standard, social security, health care, education, culture and environment, striving to ensure that all the people enjoy their rights to education, employment, medical and old-age care, and housing, and ensuring that all people share the benefits of the nation's development.

    Providing effective protection to the citizens' civil and political rights according to law. Efforts will be made to improve relevant laws and regulations to protect the citizens' basic rights; work will be done to strengthen judicial protection of human rights to promote judicial justice; and endeavors will be made to develop socialist democratic politics to expand citizens' orderly participation in political affairs, and to ensure people's rights to be informed, to participate, to be heard and to oversee.

    Providing full protection to the lawful rights of ethnic minorities, women, children, senior citizens and the disabled. Further efforts will be made to ensure ethnic minorities enjoy equal economic, political, social and cultural rights; efforts will be made to promote gender equality and eliminate gender discrimination; practical work will be done to safeguard children's rights to subsistence and development, to be protected and to participate; the social security system for elderly people will be improved to speed up the building of an old-age service system; and efforts will be made to develop the cause of the disabled to promote their equal participation in social life.

    Conducting extensive education in human rights. Education in human rights will be consistently carried out among civil servants; human rights education in various forms will be held in all types of schools and at all levels; and human rights knowledge will be publicized throughout the society to enhance the citizens' awareness in this respect.

    Actively participating in international exchanges and cooperation on human rights. China will conscientiously fulfill its obligations to international human rights conventions, take an active part in the work of the United Nations human rights mechanisms, and continuously conduct human rights dialogue, cooperation and exchanges with other countries on the basis of equality and mutual respect.

    Approved and authorized by the State Council, the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2012-2015) is hereby promulgated.

     

     

    一、经济、社会和文化权利

    继续把保障人民的生存权和发展权放在首位。采取积极措施,切实保障和改善民生,着力解决关系群众切身利益的问题,提高经济、社会和文化权利保障水平,努力使发展成果惠及全体人民。

    (一)工作权利

    实施更加积极的就业政策,完善工资制度,全面推行劳动合同制度,改善劳动条件,强化劳动安全,保障劳动者的工作权利。

    ——落实就业优先战略。2012-2015年,年均城镇新增就业900万人,城镇登记失业率控制在5%以内。促进城乡劳动者平等就业,促进农村劳动力有序外出就业和就地就近转移就业。

    ——完善工资制度。建立工资正常增长机制,稳步提高最低工资标准,最低工资标准年均增长13%以上,绝大多数地区最低工资标准达到当地城镇从业人员平均工资的40%以上。建立健全企业工资集体协商机制和企业工资支付保障制度。促进农民工与城镇就业人员同工同酬。

    ——修改劳动合同法。全面推行劳动合同制度。到2015年,企业劳动合同签订率达到90%。

    ——改善劳动条件。加快劳动标准体系建设,规范劳动定额标准管理。落实带薪休假制度。

    ——实施安全生产战略。加强安全生产监管,防止重特大事故发生。到2015年,国家和省(自治区、直辖市)、市以及高危行业中央企业应急平台建设完成率达到100%,重点县达到80%以上。到2013年,非煤矿山、危险化学品、烟花爆竹以及冶金、有色、建材、机械、轻工、纺织、烟草和商贸8个工贸行业规模以上企业均达到安全标准化三级以上;到2015年,交通运输、建筑施工等行业领域以及冶金等8个工贸行业规模以下企业均实现安全标准化达标。各类安全生产事故死亡人数以及较大、重大和特别重大事故起数均明显下降。公开安全生产信息。设立举报信箱,统一和规范“12350”安全生产举报投诉电话。

    ——实施职业病防治法。继续落实《国家职业病防治规划(2009-2015年)》设定的职业安全健康指标。

    ——面向城乡劳动者开展多种形式的职业培训。力争使新进入人力资源市场的劳动者都有机会接受相应的职业培训,使企业技能岗位的职工得到至少一次技能提升培训。推动各地建立职业技能实训基地。到2015年,全国技能劳动者总量达到1.25亿人,其中高技能人才达到3400万人,占技能劳动者的比例达到27%左右。

    ——完善劳动保障监察执法体系和劳动人事争议处理机制。强化劳动保障监察执法。充分发挥劳动人事争议调解仲裁的作用,劳动人事争议仲裁结案率达到90%。

    (二)基本生活水准权利

    保持经济平稳较快发展,调整收入分配格局,实施扶贫开发攻坚工程,完善基本住房保障制度,依法保障农民的土地权益,提高公民基本生活权利的保障水平。

    ——保持城乡居民收入实际增长和经济增长同步。2011-2015年,国内生产总值年均增长7%,城镇居民人均可支配收入和农村居民人均纯收入分别年均增长7%以上。调整收入分配格局。提高居民收入在国民收入分配中的比重,提高劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重,扩大中等收入者比重,增加中低收入者收入。

    ——落实《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》。逐步提高扶贫标准。实施集中连片特殊困难地区扶贫攻坚工程,对2.4万个村整村推进。开展农村贫困劳动力实用技术培训。坚持自愿原则,对生存条件恶劣地区扶贫对象实行异地扶贫搬迁。继续在边境地区、地方病严重地区、灾后恢复重建地区以及其他特困区域开展扶贫开发试点。继续开展科技扶贫,推进科技特派员农村科技创业行动。大力发展贫困山区林业,2015年贫困地区森林覆盖率比2010年底增加1.5个百分点,力争实现贫困农户一户一项增收项目。

    ——制定基本住房保障条例。完善保障性住房建设、分配、管理、退出等制度。加快廉租住房、公共租赁住房、经济适用房等保障性住房建设,推进城镇棚户区改造,力争使城镇中等偏下和低收入家庭住房困难问题得到基本解决,新就业职工住房困难得到缓解,外来务工人员居住条件得到明显改善。到2015年,全国保障性住房覆盖面达到20%左右。加快林区、垦区、煤矿等棚户区改造。“十二五”期间改造林业棚户区(危旧房)81.53万户。

    ——帮助贫困农户解决基本住房安全问题。继续发挥政府补助资金的引导作用,建立农村危房改造长效机制。2012-2015年,累计帮助500万贫困农户的危房改造。

    ——落实《国有土地上房屋征收与补偿条例》。建立健全房屋征收法规政策体系,切实维护被征收房屋所有权人的合法权益。

    ——做好土地确权登记颁证。切实保护农民的土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权。制定农村集体土地征收补偿条例。

    (三)社会保障权利

    完善各类社会保险制度,促进社会救助制度城乡均等覆盖,提高社会保障水平。

    ——制定和修改社会保险法的配套法规和规章。修改失业保险条例,制定基本医疗保险条例、全国社会保障基金条例,制定生育保险以及社会保险登记、申报、缴纳等方面的规章。

    ——完善养老保险制度。到2015年,城镇职工和居民参加基本养老保险人数达到3.57亿人,实现新型农村社会养老保险和城镇居民社会养老保险制度全覆盖。将与企业建立稳定劳动关系的农民工纳入城镇职工基本养老和医疗保险。做好城镇职工基本养老保险关系的转移接续,逐步推进城乡养老保险制度有效衔接。全面落实城镇职工基本养老保险省级统筹,实现基础养老金全国统筹。完善基本养老金正常调整机制,稳步提高企业退休人员基本养老金水平。

    ——完善基本医疗保险制度。到2015年,医疗保险基本覆盖城乡居民。职工医疗保险、城镇居民医疗保险、新型农村合作医疗(以下简称“新农合”)参保(合)人数较2010年新增6000万人以上。城乡基本医疗保险参保(合)人数达到13.2亿人。提高对城镇居民基本医疗保险和新农合财政补助标准。职工医保、城镇居民医保和新农合在政策范围内住院医疗费用支付比例均达到75%左右。城镇居民医保和新农合门诊统筹覆盖所有统筹地区,支付比例提高到50%以上。到2015年,城镇居民医保和新农合政府补助标准提高到每人每年360元以上,新农合参合率稳定在95%以上。

    ——修改失业保险条例及其配套规定。进一步健全失业保险制度,提高失业保险统筹层次。到2015年,失业保险参保人数达到1.6亿人。

    ——完善工伤预防、工伤补偿和工伤康复相结合的工伤保险制度。完善工伤保险市级统筹,逐步实行省级统筹。积极稳妥推进工伤预防和工伤康复工作。到2015年,工伤保险参保人数达到2.1亿人。

    ——完善生育保险制度。到2015年,生育保险参保人数达到1.5亿人。

    ——提高城乡低保和社会救助水平。完善城乡低保标准的科学制定机制和动态调整机制,城乡低保标准年均增幅达到10%,农村五保供养标准达到当地农村居民平均生活水平。推行城乡低保分类施保,提高老年人、残疾人、未成年人和重病患者的救助水平。到2015年,全国城乡低保人数占总人口的比例达到6%左右,实现应保尽保。逐步降低或者取消医疗救助起付线,推广医疗救助诊疗费用结算“一站式”服务模式。修改《城市生活无着的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法》,全面建立临时救助制度。

    (四)健康权利

    初步建立起覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗卫生制度,健全医疗保障制度,完善公共卫生服务体系和医疗服务体系,保障公民健康权利。

    ——制定精神卫生法。研究制定基本医疗卫生保健法。

    ——不断提高人均期望寿命。到2015年,人均期望寿命达到74.5岁。

    ——加强基层医疗卫生机构和全科医生培养基地建设。到2015年,通过转岗培训、在岗培训和规范化培训培养15万名全科医生。

    ——促进基本公共卫生服务逐步均等化。落实现有人均基本公共卫生服务经费不低于25元标准,到2015年提高至40元以上。为城乡居民免费提供建立健康档案、健康教育、预防接种等多项服务。提倡无偿献血,保障血液安全。提高居民急救服务的可及性。

    ——有效控制传染病流行。加强艾滋病、霍乱等重点传染病的预防控制,有效控制艾滋病、病毒性肝炎、结核病的新发感染和病死率。县以上医疗卫生机构传染病疫情网络直报率达到100%。加强乘坐铁路等大众交通工具的旅客传染病防治工作。构建口岸重大疫情疫病联防联控机制,加强口岸医学媒介监测和携病原体检测。

    ——加大慢性病防治力度。普及慢性病防治知识,慢性病防治核心信息人群知晓率达到50%以上。加强主要慢性病及高风险人群的早期发现和干预管理,35岁以上成人血压和血糖知晓率分别达到75%和50%,高血压管理率和糖尿病规范管理率均不低于40%。在全国30%的癌症高发地区开展对重点癌症的早诊早治。

    ——保障饮用水卫生安全。推进饮用水卫生监测网络建设,到2015年,国家饮用水监测网络覆盖设区市和90%以上的县,全国农村集中式供水人口提高到80%左右,每年解决6000万左右农村人口饮水问题。

    ——实施食品安全法。完善食品安全监管体制,健全食品安全法规标准体系,落实食品安全责任。严格食品生产加工环节监管,完善食品、食品添加剂和食品相关生产许可制度、监督检查制度、召回制度、标签标识管理制度等基本监管制度。完善食品安全事故应急预案、事故调查处理制度和快速查处机制。健全行政执法与刑事司法的衔接机制,严厉打击食品领域违法犯罪行为。

    ——全面落实地方病防治措施。基本消除重点地方病危害。海南、西藏、青海和新疆四省(自治区)90%以上的县(市、区)消除碘缺乏病,其他省(自治区、直辖市)95%以上的县(市、区)保持消除碘缺乏病状态。在燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区,95%以上的家庭落实以改炉改灶为主的综合防治措施。基本完成已查明饮水型地方性氟中毒、砷中毒病区的饮水安全工程和改水工程建设。有效控制饮茶型地方性氟中毒危害。消除大骨节病的病区村达到90%以上。消除克山病的病区县达到90%以上。

    ——研究制定中医药法和药品标准管理办法。提高国家药品标准,健全药品检验检测体系,加强药品安全监测预警,完善药品安全应急处理机制,落实药品安全责任,确保国家基本药物质量安全。

    ——形成覆盖城乡的全民健身公共服务体系。落实《全民健身计划(2011-2015年)》。各类体育场地达到120万个以上,人均体育场地面积达到1.5平方米以上。设区的市、县(区)、街道(乡镇)、社区(行政村)普遍建有体育场地,配有体育健身设施。50%以上的设区市、县(区)建有全民健身活动中心,50%以上的街道(乡镇)、社区(行政村)建有便捷、实用的体育健身设施。50%以上的农村社区建有体育健身站(点)。

    (五)受教育权利

    实施《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》,推进义务教育均衡发展,发展学前教育和职业教育,普及高中教育,提高高等教育质量,促进教育公平,提高公民总体受教育水平。

    ——巩固九年义务教育普及水平。小学净入学率保持在99%以上,初中毛入学率达99%,九年义务教育巩固率达到93%。以流入地全日制公办中小学为主,保障农民工随迁子女平等接受义务教育。

    ——均衡配置教育资源。推进义务教育学校标准化建设,加强薄弱学校改造。推行教师在区域内流动,重点缩小区域内办学差距。资源配置向中西部、农村、边远、民族地区和城市薄弱学校倾斜。加快农村寄宿制学校建设,努力满足农村学龄儿童的寄宿需要。

    ——积极发展学前教育。学前三年毛入园率达到65%以上,学前一年毛入学率达到85%以上。“十二五”期间,中央财政投入500亿元重点支持中西部农村地区发展学前教育。地方各级人民政府实施学前教育三年行动计划,逐步完善城乡学前教育网络。

    ——加快普及高中阶段教育。改善普通高中办学条件,提高教育水平和质量。到2015年,高中阶段教育毛入学率达到87%。加大对中西部贫困地区高中阶段教育的扶持力度。

    ——大力发展职业教育。保持中等职业教育和普通高中招生规模大体相当。扶持建设紧贴产业需求、校企深度融合的专业,建设既有基础理论知识和教学能力,又有实践经验和技能的师资队伍。逐步实行免费中等职业教育。

    ——促进高等教育发展。结合经济社会发展和国家战略需要,提高教育质量和创新能力。实施中西部高等教育振兴计划,新增招生计划向中西部高等教育资源短缺地区倾斜,扩大东部高校在中西部地区招生规模,加大东部高校对西部高校对口支援力度。

    ——进一步健全家庭经济困难学生资助政策体系。健全普通高中家庭经济困难学生国家资助制度。完善国家奖助学金标准动态调整机制,确保学生不因家庭经济困难而失学。

    (六)文化权利

    实施《国家“十二五”时期文化改革发展规划纲要》,采取有力措施,加快公共文化设施建设,促进文化事业发展,丰富人民文化生活,保障公民文化权利。

    ——加强文化立法。研究制定公共图书馆法、博物馆条例等法律法规,修改著作权法、文物保护法等法律,制定完善与非物质文化遗产法配套的法规和规章。

    ——健全公共文化设施和服务网络。加强文化馆、博物馆、图书馆、美术馆、科技馆、纪念馆、工人文化宫、青少年宫等公共文化设施建设,向社会免费开放。广播电视村村通工程覆盖20户以下已通电自然村。全国广播电视人口综合覆盖率达到99%。文化信息资源共享工程数字资源总量达到530百万兆字节,入户率达到50%。农村流动银幕达到5万块,每个行政村每月放映一场数字电影。把农民工纳入城市公共文化服务体系,引导企业、社区积极开展面向农民工的文化活动。

    ——推动文化覆盖和科技普及。到2015年,实现人均年拥有图书5.8册,期刊3.1册,千人拥有日报达到100份,万人拥有出版物发行网点1.3个,国民综合阅读率达到80%。加快农家书屋、城乡阅报栏(屏)工程建设。实施科学技术进步法和科学技术普及法,制定公民科学素质基准,推进科普场馆建设,启动国家科普示范基地建设。

    ——加快互联网建设。到2015年,互联网普及率超过45%。互联网固定宽带接入端口超过3.7亿个,城市家庭带宽接入能力基本达到20兆位/秒以上,农村家庭带宽接入能力基本达到4兆位/秒以上,实现2亿家庭光纤到户覆盖。建设宽带无线城市。逐步提高农村网络覆盖和应用普及水平。

    (七)环境权利

    加强环境保护,着力解决重金属、饮用水源、大气、土壤、海洋污染等关系民生的突出环境问题,保障环境权利。

    ——修改环境保护法。保护和改善生活环境和生态环境,防治环境污染和其他公害。

    ——有效防治重金属污染。完善重金属污染防治体系、事故应急体系和环境与健康风险评估体系。

    ——加大水污染防治力度。改善跨省界断面、污染严重的城市水体和支流水环境质量,减轻重点湖泊富营养化,进一步提高水功能区达标率,逐步恢复部分水域水生态。加大生态良好湖泊保护力度。持续削减主要水污染物排放总量。建立地下水环境监管体系,基本掌握地下水污染状况,初步控制地下水污染源,启动地下水污染修复试点。

    ——改善大气质量。到2015年,化学需氧量、二氧化硫、氨氮、氮氧化物排放总量分别控制在2347.6万吨、2086.4万吨、238.0万吨、2046.2万吨。重点区域可吸入颗粒物年平均浓度逐年降低。到2015年将细颗粒物(PM2.5)项目监测覆盖地级以上城市。

    ——推进生态建设。到2015年,陆地自然保护区总面积占陆地国土面积的比例保持在15%左右,使90%的国家重点保护物种和典型生态系统类型得到保护。全国森林覆盖率达到21.66%,新增沙化土地治理面积达到1000万公顷以上。新增水土流失综合治理面积20万平方公里。城市建成区绿化覆盖率达到39%,村屯建成区绿化覆盖率达到25%。

    ——加强海洋生态保护,推进海洋保护区建设,强化对海洋工程、海洋倾废等的环境监管。

    ——加强放射性污染防治。推进早期核设施退役和放射性污染治理。开展民用辐射照射装置退役和废源回收工作。加快放射性废物贮存、处理和处置能力建设,基本消除历史遗留的中低放废液的安全风险。加快铀矿、伴生放射性矿污染治理,关停不符合安全要求的铀矿冶设施,建立铀矿冶退役治理工程长期监护机制。

    ——严格监管危险化学品。依法淘汰高毒、难降解、高环境危害的化学品,严格限制生产和使用高环境风险化学品。

    ——完善环境监察体制机制。建立跨行政区环境执法合作机制和部门联动执法机制,健全重大环境事件和污染事故责任追究制度。

    I. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    The Chinese government will continue to give priority to the protection of the people's rights to subsistence and development. It will take proactive measures to ensure and improve the people's livelihood, spare no efforts to solve the problems of immediate concern to the people, and improve the level of protection of economic, social and cultural rights, so as to ensure that the benefits of development are shared by all members of society.

    (1) Right to work

    Efforts will be made to implement a more active employment policy, improve the wage system, fully carry out the labor contract system, improve working conditions, strengthen labor safety and protect the people's right to work.

    - Implementing the "employment priority" strategy. From 2012 to 2015, the urban workforce will be increased by nine million on annual average, and the registered urban unemployment rate will be kept under 5%. Efforts will be made to ensure equal employment opportunities for urban and rural residents, and promote the orderly outflow of rural labor force and local transfer and employment of rural labor force.

    - Improving the wage system. A normal wage increase mechanism will be set up and the minimum wage level will be raised steadily. The minimum wage will increase by over 13% annually, and the minimum wage level in most regions will reach over 40% of the average wage of local urban employees. Efforts will be made to establish and improve the collective wage consultation mechanism and wage payment security mechanism in enterprises, and to ensure that migrant workers and urban employees receive equal pay for equal work.

    - Amending the Labor Contract Law and comprehensively introducing the labor contract system. By 2015, the labor contract signing rate of enterprises will reach 90%.

    - Improving working conditions. Efforts will be made to accelerate the construction of the system of labor standards, define management according to standard labor quotas and implement the paid vacation system.

    - Implementing a safety production strategy, strengthening monitoring for workplace safety and preventing major accidents. By 2015, the completion rate of construction of enterprise emergency platforms at national, provincial (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) and city levels and for enterprises of high-risk industries will be 100%; and that in the major counties, 80%. By 2013, Grade III safety standards or above will be applied for non-coal mines and factories producing dangerous chemicals and fireworks as well as enterprises above a certain scale in the eight industrial and commercial trades of metallurgy, non-ferrous metals, building materials, machine-building, light industry, textiles, tobacco and commerce. By 2015, enterprises below a certain scale in the eight trades, including the metallurgical industry, as well as transportation and communications, construction and other industries, will reach the required safety standards. The death toll caused by various types of industrial accidents and the number of major accidents will fall markedly. Safety production information will be publicized, and complaints mailboxes and "12350" safe production report hotlines set up and standardized.

    - Implementing the Law on the Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases. The occupational health indicators prescribed in the National Occupational Disease Control Program (2009-2015) will be continuously implemented.

    - Launching multiform vocational training to rural and urban workers. Efforts will be made to guarantee every new employee access to corresponding vocational training opportunities, ensuring that technical workers can take part in at least one skill-upgrading training program. The localities are encouraged to establish practical training bases. By 2015, the total number of skilled workers will reach 125 million, of which 34 million will be highly-skilled workers.

    - Improving the labor security supervision and law-enforcing system and the labor dispute settlement mechanism. China will strengthen supervision over and law-enforcement for labor security. It will give full play to the role of labor dispute mediation and arbitration, and the closing rate of labor dispute arbitration will reach 90%.

    (2) Right to basic living standards

    China will maintain steady and rapid economic development, adjust the income distribution pattern, implement poverty alleviation projects, improve the basic housing security system, protect farmers' rights and interests related to land according to law and improve the level of citizens' basic rights of life.

    - The increase of rural and urban residents' income will keep pace with economic growth. From 2011 to 2015, the average annual growth rate of China's GDP is expected to be 7%, and the annual growth rate of the per-capita disposal income of urban residents and per-capita net income of rural residents will be over 7%. The income distribution pattern will be adjusted, the share of personal income in the distribution of national income will be increased, so will that of work remuneration in primary distribution; the proportion of middle-income earners will be expanded and the income of middle- and low-income earners will be increased.

    - Implementing the Outline of Development-oriented Poverty Reduction for China' s Rural Areas (2011-2020). The state will gradually raise the standards for poverty alleviation. Key poverty reduction projects will be launched for 24,000 villages, where most of the villagers are hit hard by poverty. The government will also conduct training programs in practical skills for the impoverished laborers in rural areas. It will organize migration for people in areas with harsh living conditions on condition that they can do it out of their free will. It will continue to carry out poverty reduction pilot projects in border, endemic-disease-stricken and post-disaster reconstruction areas, and other poverty-stricken areas. It will continue to support such areas with science and technology, and send technicians there to help local people start businesses for the purpose of poverty reduction. Great efforts will be made to develop forestry in poor mountain areas, striving to increase the forest coverage by 1.5 percentage points over that at the end of 2010 and ensure that each impoverished household starts one income-generating project.

    - Formulating basic housing security regulations, and improving the construction, distribution, management and exit system of indemnificatory housing. Efforts will be made to speed up the construction of low-rent housing, public rental housing, affordable housing and other types of indemnificatory house, and promote the rebuilding of shanty areas in cities. In so doing, China aims to basically solve the housing problem of low- and lower-middle-income urban families, lessen the housing difficulties of new employees and improve the living conditions of migrant workers. By 2015, the coverage of indemnificatory housing across the country will reach 20%. China will speed up the transformation of shanty areas in forest, reclamation and coal-mining regions. It will renovate dilapidated housing for 815,300 families in forest areas during the 12th Five-Year Plan period.

    - Helping impoverished farmer households solve housing safety problems. Efforts will be made to bring into play the guiding role of government financial subsidies in establishing a long-term mechanism for rural dilapidated house transformation. The government plans to help five million impoverished farmer households upgrade their dilapidated houses from 2012 to 2015.

    - Implementing the Regulations on the Expropriation of and Compensation for Buildings on State-owned Land, enacting and improving policies and regulations related to housing expropriation to effectively protect the legitimate rights of the owners.

    - Doing a good job in land right confirmation, registration and certification so as to effectively protect the farmers' rights to operate their contracted land, to use homesteads and to get income from distribution of collective gains. The state will formulate regulations concerning compensation from the expropriation of rural collective land.

    (3) Right to social security

    China will improve the various forms of social insurance, and promote the equal coverage of the social relief system in both rural and urban areas to improve the social security level.

    - Enacting and amending the supporting rules and regulations of the Social Insurance Law. The state will revise the Regulations on Unemployment Insurance, enact regulations on basic medical insurance and regulations on national security fund, and regulations on maternity insurance and rules regarding the registration, application and payment of social insurance, etc.

    - Improving the pension system. By 2015, the number of urban workers and residents underwriting the basic old-age insurance policies will reach 357 million, and the eventual aim is to achieve full coverage of the new rural old-age insurance system and urban employees' pension insurance system. Migrant workers who have established stable labor relations with enterprises will be covered in the basic old-age and medical insurance schemes for urban employees. The state will guarantee the transfer of basic pension accounts for urban workers, and gradually promote the effectual bridging of the rural and urban old-age insurance systems. Efforts will be made to comprehensively implement unified planning in old-age insurance for urban employees and achieve national unified planning for basic old-age pensions. China will endeavor to improve the normal adjustment mechanism for basic pensions to steadily raise the basic pensions for enterprise retirees.

    - Improving the basic medical insurance system to make medical insurance basically cover both rural and urban residents in 2015. The total number of people subscribing policies of medical insurance for urban employees, medical insurance for urban residents and new rural cooperative medical insurance will be increased by 60 million as compared with 2010, and the number of people subscribing urban and rural basic medical insurance policies will reach 1.32 billion. Financial grants to those taking policies of urban residents' basic medical insurance and new rural cooperative medical insurance will be raised. The medical treatment cost of inpatients covered by urban employees' medical insurance, urban residents' medical insurance and new rural cooperative medical insurance will all be around 75%. Urban residents' medical insurance and new rural cooperative medical insurance will cover all areas where unified planning in this regard is made, and their coverage of the outpatient expenses will be raised to over 50%. By 2015, the government grant to each person subscribing urban residents' medical insurance and new rural cooperative medical insurance each year will be raised to over 360 yuan, while the coverage of the new rural cooperative medical insurance will be stabilized above 95%.

    - Amending regulations and supporting rules on unemployment insurance and further improving the unemployment insurance system. The level of unified planning for unemployment insurance funds will be elevated. By 2015, the number of subscribers to unemployment insurance will reach 160 million.

    -- Improving the work-related injury insurance system covering prevention, compensation and rehabilitation. Work-related injury insurance will be put first under unified planning at the municipal level, and gradually unified planning at the provincial level. Proactive and steady efforts will be made in the prevention and rehabilitation of work-related injuries. By 2015, the subscribers to work-related injury insurance will reach 210 million.

    -- Improving the maternity insurance system and by 2015 women subscribing maternity insurance will reach 150 million.

    -- Increasing subsistence allowances and level of social relief for rural and urban residents. Work will be done to improve the subsistence allowance determining mechanism and dynamic adjustment mechanism and ensure that the average annual growth rate of the subsistence allowances reach 10%. And the subsistence allowances provided to rural residents enjoying the "Five Guarantees" (food, clothing, medical care, housing and burial expenses) will equal the average living standard of fellow villagers. Recipients of basic living allowances in both urban and rural areas will be classified, and more assistance will be granted to the aged, disabled, minors and seriously ill. By 2015, the urban and rural residents entitled to the subsistence allowances will make up around 6% of the total population, covering everyone in need. Steps will be taken to gradually lower or cancel the minimum payment line for medical treatment, and popularize the one-stop settlement model. The Measures for Assisting and Managing Urban Vagrants and Beggars with No Means of Livelihood will be revised, and a temporary aid system will be established all over the country.

    (4) Right to health

    China will establish initially a basic medical and health system that covers the entire nation, and improve the medical insurance system, public health service system and medical care system to protect the citizens' right to health.

    -- Formulating a law on mental health, and making studies for the enactment of a law on basic medical and health care.

    -- Continuously increasing the average life expectancy so that it will reach 74.5 years by 2015.

    -- Strengthening the construction of primary-level medical and health care institutions and training bases for general practitioners. By 2015, China intends to train 150,000 general practitioners through job-transfer training, on-the-job training and standardized training.

    -- Promoting equality in the right to basic health services. Efforts will be made to ensure that the per-capita spending for public health services is no less than 25 yuan around the country, and see to it that it will be raised to over 40 yuan by 2015. The state will also provide such free services as establishing health records, and providing health education and vaccination. The state will encourage blood donation without compensation and secure blood safety, and make sure that emergency medical services are permanently available.

    -- Bringing infectious diseases under effective control. China will intensify efforts in prevention and control of major infectious diseases such as AIDS and cholera, and effectively control new infections and mortality caused by AIDS, viral hepatitis and tuberculosis. The rate of direct reporting on incidences of infectious diseases by medical and health institutions at/above the county level will be 100%. Endeavors will also be made to strengthen the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases among passengers on public transportation vehicles such as trains. The mechanism of joint prevention and control of major epidemics at land and sea ports will be established and medical media monitoring and pathogen detection will be strengthened at the ports.

    -- Greater efforts will be made to prevent and treat chronic diseases. China will popularize knowledge in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, striving to achieve an awareness rate of 50% among core members in this regard. China will improve early detection, intervention and management of major chronic diseases and high-risk people, making sure that the awareness rate of blood pressure and blood sugar level by people of 35 years old and above reach 75% and 50%, respectively, and the management rate of hypertension and diabetes be no less than 40%. China will institute early detection and treatment of major cancers in 30% of areas with high incidences of cancer across the country.

    -- Ensuring the safety of drinking water. China will promote the construction of a monitoring network for the safety of drinking water, and make its coverage extend to all cities divided into districts and over 90% of counties by 2015. The rural population with access to centralized water supply will be raised to 80%. Efforts will be made to make safe drinking water accessible to an additional 60 million rural people every year.

    -- The Food Safety Law will be implemented, food safety monitoring system and food safety regulations and standards will be improved, and the responsibility will be determined for safe production of food. Stricter supervision will be enforced over all links of food processing and production, and the basic supervisory systems, such as the production licensing system, supervision and inspection system, recall system and label management system for food, food additives and food-related production, will be improved, so will the emergency plan for food safety accidents, the accident investigation and handling system and rapid response and handling system. China will bridge mechanisms between administrative law enforcement and criminal justice to severely punish criminal acts harming food safety.

    -- Comprehensively implementing measures for prevention and control of endemic diseases, and basically eliminating such hazards. China will strive to eliminate iodine deficiency diseases in over 90% of the counties (cities and districts) in Hainan, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang, and make sure that iodine deficiency diseases are eliminated in 95% of the counties (cities and districts) in other provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government). In areas with a high incidence of endemic fluorosis caused by coal burning, comprehensive preventive measures focusing on modifying and improving stoves will be adopted over 95% of the households. China will basically complete projects to provide safe drinking water and improve water quality in areas afflicted by endemic fluorosis and arseniasis which have been proved to be caused mainly by unsafe drinking water. Efforts will be made to bring under effective control fluorosis caused by tea drinking. Over 90% of the villages that are afflicted by Kaschin-Beck disease will have the disease eliminated, and over 90% of the counties where Keshan disease remains an endemic will have it eliminated.

    -- Making studies for enactment of a law on traditional Chinese medicine and management methods of the standards of the medicinal materials. China will raise the national standards for drugs, improve the drug inspection and control system, strengthen drug safety monitoring and early warning, improve the drug safety emergency-response mechanism, fix in advance responsibility for the safe production and use of drugs, and ensure the quality and safety of basic drugs.

    -- Forming a national fitness public service network covering all urban and rural residents and carrying out the National Fitness Program (2011-2015). Sports venues of various kinds will add up to over 1.2 million, with per-capita sports area being above 1.5 sq m. To achieve this goal, venues with sports facilities will be built in all cities, counties (districts), neighborhoods (townships) and communities (administrative villages). National fitness centers will be built in over 50% of the country's cities and counties (districts); convenient and practical fitness equipment will be installed in over 50% of neighborhoods (townships) and communities (administrative villages). Fitness stations will be established in over 50% of rural communities.

    (5) Right to education

    By implementing the Outline of the State Medium- and Long-term Program on Education Reform and Development (2010-2020), China will promote the balanced development of compulsory education throughout the country, develop pre-school education and vocational education, make senior high school education universal, improve the quality of higher education, achieve fairness in education, and raise the overall educational level of all Chinese citizens.

    -- Consolidating the achievements in nine-year compulsory education. The net enrollment rate in elementary schools will remain at above 99%, gross enrollment rate in junior high schools will reach 99%, and the number of students graduating from compulsory education will reach 93% of the total enrollment. In addition, China will guarantee equal right to education for children of migrant workers, mainly relying on full-time public schools in cities they migrate to.

    -- Allocating educational resources in balanced manner. China will promote standardized construction of schools of nine-year compulsory education and step up efforts in the renovation of school buildings in poor conditions; encourage exchanges of teachers between different schools within an area to narrow the gap among schools; allocate more educational resources to central and western regions, rural areas, remote and border areas, ethnic-minority areas, as well as urban schools in poor conditions; and accelerate the construction of boarding schools in rural areas to meet the needs of rural children.

    -- Proactively developing pre-school education. The goal is to have 65% of the children who will be starting school in three years enrolled in kindergartens, and 85% of the children who will be starting school in one year enrolled in kindergartens. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015), the central government will appropriate 50 billion yuan for pre-school education development in rural areas of central and western China. Local governments at different levels will carry out the Pre-school Education Three-Year Action Plan and gradually build and improve pre-school education networks in urban and rural areas.

    -- Quickening steps in making senior high school education universal. China will improve the conditions of senior high schools, and enhance their teaching level and quality. By 2015, the gross enrollment rate of senior high schools will reach 87%. Moreover, more support will be given to senior high schools in poor areas of central and western China.

    -- Making great efforts to develop vocational education. Secondary vocational education will have more or less the same enrollment as regular senior high schools. Support will be given to academic subjects that meet the needs of industry and enterprises. Teaching staff with theoretical knowledge, ability to teach, and practical experience and skills will be trained. The tuition fees for secondary vocational schooling will be gradually abolished.

    -- Boosting higher education. China will improve educational quality and innovation ability of institutions of higher learning in line with the requirements of its socio-economic development and national strategy. It will carry out a higher education rejuvenation program for central and western China. The areas of central and western China that are short of higher education resources will be given priority in the allocation of such resources. Institutions of higher learning in eastern China will enlarge their enrollments in central and western China, and strengthen pair-up support by institutions of higher learning in eastern regions to those in western China.

    -- Further improving the policy system of assistance to poor students. China will improve the national allowance program for poor senior high school students and the dynamic adjustment mechanism of state scholarships to ensure that students do not drop out of school because of poverty.

    (6) Cultural rights

    The Outline of the National Plan for Cultural Reform and Development of the 12th Five-Year Plan Period will be implemented. Effective measures will be taken to accelerate the construction of public cultural facilities, promote the development of cultural undertakings, enrich the people's cultural life and guarantee the citizens' cultural rights.

    -- Strengthening legislation on culture and conducting research to formulate the Public Library Law, Museum Regulations, and other related laws and regulations, revising the Copyright Law, Law on the Protection of Cultural Relics and similar laws, and drawing up regulations and rules complementary to the Intangible Cultural Heritage Law.

    -- Improving public cultural facilities and cultural service networks. China will increase and improve public cultural facilities like culture centers, museums, libraries, art galleries, science and technology museums, memorial halls, workers' centers, and youth and children's palaces, and open them to the public free of charge. Radio and TV broadcasts will be available in all villages with no more than 20 households each and where electricity is available, covering 99% of China's population. The cultural information resource sharing project will reach 530 TB in digital resources, shared by 50% of all households. Mobile cinemas in rural areas will reach 50,000, showing one digital movie every month in every administrative village. Migrant workers will be brought into the urban public cultural service system; and enterprises and communities are guided to actively hold cultural activities geared towards migrant workers.

    -- Promoting culture coverage and popularization of science and technology. By 2015, each Chinese citizen will have, on average, 5.8 books and 3.1 periodicals every year; every 1,000 people will have 100 daily newspapers; every 10,000 people will share 1.3 publication outlets, and the number of people who read books or periodicals will reach 80% of the total population. China will also accelerate the construction of farmers' libraries, and urban and rural newspaper reading boards. China will enact the Law on Science and Technology Progress and the Law on Popularization of Science and Technology, formulate standards on citizens' scientific knowledge, promote the building of venues for popularizing science knowledge and launch the construction of the National Demonstration Base for Science Popularization.

    -- Accelerating Internet construction. By 2015 over 45% of China's population will have access to the Internet. The fixed broadband ports will exceed 370 million. The Internet connection speed for urban households will reach 20 Mb/s, and that for rural households, 4 Mb/s. Fiber optic Internet connection will cover 200 million households. In addition, China will build wireless broadband cities, and gradually spread Internet connections and usage throughout the rural areas.

    (7) Environmental rights

    China will strengthen its environmental protection work to guarantee the public's environmental rights, focusing on serious environmental pollution affecting the people's life, like heavy metal pollution, drinking water pollution, and air, soil and marine contamination.

    -- Amending the Law on Environmental Protection, preserving and improving the living environment and ecosystem, and preventing and controlling environmental pollution and other hazards.

    -- Effectively preventing and controlling heavy metal pollution by improving the prevention and control system, emergency response system, and environment and health risk assessment system as regards heavy metal pollution.

    -- Strengthening water pollution prevention and reversal efforts. China will improve the water quality and environment in trans-provincial areas, tackle seriously contaminated urban water systems and tributary rivers, slow the eutrophication of major lakes, further increase the rate of water functional zones that reach the required hygiene standards, and gradually restore the water ecosystem in certain water areas. China will also enhance protection of unpolluted lakes, and continuously reduce the total emission of major pollutants that contaminate the water. An underground water monitoring and control system will be established; the underground water pollution will be measured; underground water pollution sources will be initially controlled; and experiments to reverse underground water pollution will be launched.

    -- Improving air quality. By 2015, the country's chemical oxygen demand amount will be controlled at 23.476 million tons, and the total emissions of sulfur dioxide, ammonia nitrogen and nitric oxides will be controlled at 20.864 million tons, 2.38 million tons and 20.462 million tons, respectively. China will endeavor to reduce the concentration of inhalable particulate matter in the air in key regions year by year. By 2015, all cities at prefecture level and above will monitor particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers.

    -- Pushing forward ecosystem construction. By 2015, China's land nature reserves will take up 15% of its total land area so that 90% of the key species under national protection and typical ecosystem types will be preserved. China's forest coverage will reach 21.66%. Ten million ha of desertified land and 200,000 sq km of land suffering from soil erosion will be treated. In urban and rural built-up areas, the vegetation-coverage rates will reach 39% and 25%, respectively.

    - Strengthening marine ecosystem protection, pushing forward the construction of marine conservation areas, and tightening supervision for the environmental effects of marine projects and waste discharge into the sea.

    -- Intensifying prevention and control of radioactive waste pollution. China will push forward the decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities, and the prevention and treatment of radioactive waste. Civil radioactive-irradiation facilities will be decommissioned, and the waste will be reclaimed. The country will strengthen its ability to store, treat and dispose of radioactive waste, and basically eliminate the danger of contamination by low- and intermediate-level radioactive residue waste left over from history. The treatment of pollution by uranium mines and mines associated with radioactivity will be accelerated, and uranium mining and refining facilities that fall short of safety requirements will be shut down. At the same time, a long-term monitoring mechanism will be established for decommissioned uranium mining and refining facilities.

    -- Enforcing strict monitoring and control over dangerous chemicals. China will phase out chemicals that are highly poisonous, hard to degrade or highly hazardous to the environment, and strictly restrict the production and use of chemicals involving severe environmental risks.

    -- Improving environmental monitoring and supervision mechanisms, establishing a trans-regional and inter-departmental cooperative mechanism for the enforcement of environmental laws, and improving the accountability system for major environmental and pollution accidents.

     

     

    二、公民权利和政治权利

    努力发展社会主义民主政治,完善社会主义法治,扩大公民有序政治参与,全面保障公民权利和政治权利。

    (一)人身权利

    在刑事诉讼和执法工作中,依法保障公民的人身权利。

    ——实施刑事诉讼法。调整和细化逮捕、取保候审、监视居住等强制措施的适用条件和管理规定,增加可操作性。

    ——依法保障犯罪嫌疑人的各项诉讼权利。依法及时告知犯罪嫌疑人诉讼权利义务,积极为律师在侦查阶段参与刑事诉讼创造条件。

    ——强化对刑讯逼供的预防和救济措施。严禁刑讯逼供和以其他非法方法收集证据,不得强迫任何人证实自己有罪。

    ——人民检察院在审查逮捕阶段应注重听取犯罪嫌疑人的申辩。有线索或者证据表明侦查活动可能存在刑讯逼供、暴力取证等重大违法行为的,检察人员应当讯问犯罪嫌疑人。犯罪嫌疑人要求讯问的,也应当讯问。

    ——在刑事诉讼程序中完善听取律师意见的相关机制。犯罪嫌疑人委托的律师提出不构成犯罪、无逮捕必要、不适宜羁押、侦查活动有违法犯罪情形等书面意见及证据材料的,检察人员应当认真审查。必要时,可以当面听取律师的意见。对律师提出的意见及证据材料,应当在审查逮捕意见书中说明是否采纳的情况和理由。

    ——逐步实施对公安机关执法办案场所的规范化改造。严格执行《公安机关执法办案场所设置规范》,将办案区域与其他区域物理隔离,按照办案流程设置办案区各功能室,并安装全程录音录像和视频监控系统,实时、动态监督管理执法办案全过程,防止侵犯公民合法权益。

    ——依法扩大缓刑制度和社区矫正的适用范围。适当减少监禁刑的适用,明确适用非监禁刑案件的范围。完善社区矫正法律制度,丰富社区矫正、教育矫正和帮困扶助措施。

    ——加大查处国家机关工作人员利用职权实施的非法拘禁等侵犯公民人身权利犯罪的力度。

    (二)被羁押人的权利

    进一步加强对刑事诉讼活动、刑罚执行和监管活动的监督,保障被羁押人的合法权利。

    ——保障被羁押人的权利和人道待遇。完善看守所管理的法律规定。逐步实行被羁押人床位制,推动看守所医疗工作社会化,使被羁押人患病得到及时治疗。

    ——防止不必要的羁押。在犯罪嫌疑人、被告人被逮捕后,人民检察院仍然应当对羁押的必要性进行审查。发现不需要继续羁押的,应当建议办案机关释放犯罪嫌疑人、被告人或者变更强制措施。

    ——加强对刑事羁押期限的监督。人民检察院应当监督办案机关严格执行换押制度;落实羁押期限即将到期预警和提示告知制度、超期羁押责任追究制度;预防和清理久押不决的案件,及时督促办案机关尽快办结羁押严重超过期限的案件。

    ——健全被羁押人权利保障机制。严格落实被羁押人入所体检、定期体表检查、收押权利义务告知、紧急报警等制度。严格执行对犯罪嫌疑人的提讯和还押制度。完善对被羁押人的安全风险评估、心理干预、投诉调查处理以及特邀监督员巡查看守所等制度和工作机制。健全被羁押人员约见派驻检察官、派驻检察官与被羁押人谈话以及检察官信箱等制度,预防并查处监管场所工作人员体罚、虐待、侮辱等侵犯被羁押人权利的行为。

    ——完善监管场所被监管人死亡检察制度、看守所在押人员死亡调查处理制度。

    (三)获得公正审判的权利

    完善诉讼程序的法律规定,保障诉讼当事人获得公正审判的权利。

    ——保障刑事被告人依法获得辩护、法律援助、申请回避等诉讼权利。

    ——保障律师在执业活动中的人身权、辩护权和辩论权。

    ——进一步完善证人、鉴定人出庭和证人保护制度。

    ——完善非法证据排除制度。对采用刑讯逼供等非法方法收集的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人供述和采用暴力、威胁等非法方法收集的证人证言、被害人陈述,应当予以排除,不能作为定案的根据。严格执行办理死刑案件审查判断证据的规定,对死刑案件的证据审查判断采用更严格的标准。

    ——执行《最高人民法院关于庭审活动录音录像的若干规定》。建立重大案件讯问犯罪嫌疑人全程录音录像制度。

    ——继续推进量刑规范化改革。人民检察院在办理刑事案件过程中,依法向人民法院提出量刑建议。规范量刑裁量权,制定人民法院量刑指导意见和最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部有关规范量刑程序的规定,保障量刑公开、公正。

    ——进一步严格死刑审判和复核程序。完善死刑案件审理的程序,实行死刑二审案件全部开庭审理。死刑复核程序中应当讯问被告人,辩护律师提出要求的,应当听取辩护律师的意见。强化最高人民检察院对死刑复核案件的法律监督。最高人民法院通过发布指导性案例进一步明确死刑适用标准。

    ——修改民事诉讼法。进一步完善民事诉讼中的起诉、受理和开庭前准备程序,建立小额诉讼制度、公益诉讼制度,完善保全制度、证据制度、送达制度、裁判文书公开制度和审判监督程序等,保障当事人的诉讼权利。

    ——修改行政诉讼法。进一步完善行政诉讼案件的受理、审理程序和证据规则,保障受到违法行政行为侵害的个人和组织获得司法救济的权利。

    (四)宗教信仰自由

    贯彻宗教信仰自由的宪法原则,落实《宗教事务条例》,保障公民宗教信仰自由。

    ——保护公民不被强制信仰或不信仰宗教、不因宗教信仰而受到歧视。

    ——依法保护正常的宗教活动。

    ——完善朝觐事务管理办法。改进朝觐的组织、管理和服务工作,为穆斯林群众顺利完成朝觐功课提供便利和保障。

    ——鼓励宗教界开展公益慈善活动。

    ——帮助宗教界解决部分项目建设中的实际困难。支持中国佛学院新校舍的建设、改扩建中国伊斯兰教经学院。支持西藏和四川、云南、甘肃、青海四省藏区宗教活动场所设施的改建扩建项目。支持青海玉树地震灾后宗教活动场所恢复重建。加大对新疆等穆斯林聚居地区以及遭受自然灾害的清真寺的帮扶力度。

    ——制定解决宗教教职人员社会保障问题相关规定的实施办法。

    ——促进宗教文化交流。支持中国宗教界与国外相关宗教组织开展友好交流。

    (五)知情权

    深入推进政务公开,继续从法律法规、政策等方面拓展知情权的范围,不断提高公民知情权的保障水平。

    ——推进政府信息公开。实施政府信息公开条例,落实《国务院关于加强法治政府建设的意见》。凡是不涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的政府信息,都要向社会公开。重点推进财政预算、公共资源配置、重大建设项目批准和实施、社会公益事业建设等领域的政府信息公开。

    ——推进政府办事公开。所有面向社会服务的政府部门全面推进办事公开制度,依法公开办事依据、条件、要求、过程和结果,充分告知办事项目有关信息。

    ——积极稳妥推进审计工作信息公开。坚持和完善审计结果公告制度,规范公告的形式、内容和程序;坚持和完善特定审计事项阶段性审计情况公告、重大案件查处结果公告制度。

    ——不断完善政府新闻发布制度、新闻发言人制度和党委新闻发言人制度。

    ——建立健全领导干部任免信息向社会公开制度。适时发布领导职位空缺情况及其岗位职责要求、考察对象或者拟任人选的基本情况,提高领导干部任免信息公开的制度化、规范化水平。

    ——规范和监督医院、学校、公交、公用等公共企事业单位的办事公开工作。重点公开岗位职责、服务承诺、收费项目、工作规范、办事纪律、监督渠道等内容。

    ——推行厂务公开。到2015年,实现已建工会的国有、集体及其控股企业厂务公开,已建工会的非公有制企业实行厂务公开达到80%以上,切实保证职工群众的知情权。

    ——完善村务公开,以财务公开为重点,建立村务信息公开平台。

    (六)参与权

    进一步健全民主制度,丰富民主形式,拓宽民主渠道,扩大公民有序政治参与。

    ——实施选举法,保障公民的选举权和被选举权。

    ——保障和支持民主党派和无党派人士参加国家政权,参与国家大政方针和国家领导人选的协商,参与国家事务的管理,参与国家方针政策、法律法规的制定和执行。

    ——制定涉及重大公共利益和人民群众切身利益的法律、法规、规章时,向社会公开并征求意见。

    ——继续支持工会、共青团、妇女联合会等人民团体依法参与社会管理和社会服务。制定和修改相关法律、法规和政策时,认真听取各人民团体的意见。

    ——促进社会组织有序参与社会建设。制定慈善事业法,修改社会团体登记管理条例、民办非企业单位登记管理暂行条例和基金会管理条例。规范志愿服务活动,推动志愿服务事业发展。

    ——完善职工代表大会制度和职工董事、职工监事制度,支持工会代表职工参与企事业单位管理。逐步实现已建工会的国有、集体及其控股企业职工代表大会制度全覆盖,已建工会的非公有制企业职代会制度达到80%以上。

    ——进一步发展和完善基层群众自治制度。

    (七)表达权

    畅通各种渠道,依法保障公民的言论自由和表达权。

    ——尊重和保障参加人民政协的各党派团体、各族各界人士在政协的各种会议上发表意见、开展视察、提出提案、反映社情民意、参与调查和检查活动等权利。

    ——国家机关及其工作人员应当通过多种方式与公众进行交流,了解公众意愿,征求公众意见。

    ——健全群众利益诉求表达机制,不断畅通和拓宽信访渠道。落实信访条例,推广和完善“绿色邮政”、“网上信访”、“专线电话”、“视频接访”、“信访代理”等做法。坚持各级领导干部阅批群众来信,推进领导干部接访下访,加强信访信息系统的建设和推广应用。继续加强国家投诉受理中心建设,构建快速高效受理群众诉求的综合平台。

    ——保障企事业单位职工的表达权。企业制定和修改劳动规章制度须经职工代表大会讨论,确保职工的利益表达渠道畅通。

    ——加强对新闻机构和新闻从业人员合法权益的制度保障。依法保障新闻从业人员的知情权、采访权、发表权、批评权、监督权,维护新闻机构、采编人员和新闻当事人的合法权益。

    (八)监督权

    不断完善监督体系,加强对权力运行的制约和监督,切实保障公民的民主监督权利。

    ——加强各级人大及其常委会对人民政府、人民法院、人民检察院工作的监督。加强对领导干部的监督,确保权力正确行使。

    ——充分发挥人民政协民主监督作用。加大参加人民政协的各党派团体和各族各界人士以建议和批评方式,对重大方针政策的贯彻执行和国家机关及其工作人员的工作情况的监督力度。

    ——健全对规章和规范性文件的监督制度。按照有关规定认真研究办理个人和组织提出的审查建议。加强规章和规范性文件的备案审查工作,防止违法增加个人和组织的义务。

    ——加强对行政审批权力的监督制约。推进审批过程、结果公开,强化全过程监控。

    ——严格执行公务员法、行政监察法中规定的行政问责制度。加大对安全生产、食品药品质量、征地拆迁、环境污染等责任事故的问责力度。依法惩戒因失职、渎职而侵害群众利益的行为。

    ——修改监察机关举报工作办法和关于保护检举、控告人的规定。对举报事项、举报情况以及举报人的信息严格保密,及时纠正阻拦、压制、打击报复举报人的行为,切实保护举报人的合法权益。

    ——保障公民和社会组织通过申请行政复议、提起行政诉讼,对行政机关依法行政进行监督的权利。

    ——扩大社会监督。加强特邀监察员、监督员、检查员工作。强化人民群众对行政机关、审判机关、检察机关等的监督。

    ——鼓励新闻媒体发挥舆论监督作用。畅通公民对国家机关及其工作人员提出批评、建议、申诉、控告、检举的渠道。

    II. Civil and Political Rights

    China endeavors to develop socialist democracy, improve the socialist rule of law, expand the orderly political participation of citizens and guaranteeing people's civil and political rights in an all-round way.

    (1) Rights of the person

    All rights of the person are guaranteed by law in lawsuits and law enforcement.

    -- Criminal Procedure Law will be implemented. The applicable conditions and management stipulations for the adoption of such compulsory measures as arrest, release on bail pending trial and residential surveillance will be adjusted and specified in greater detail.

    -- All rights of the suspects in lawsuits will be guaranteed by law. The suspects will be informed of their rights and obligations in a timely fashion in accordance with the law, and conditions will be created actively for lawyers to get involved in a lawsuit from the stage of criminal investigation.

    -- Preventive and remedial measures against extortion of confession by torture and collecting evidence through other illegal methods will be enforced; and no one will be forced to prove himself or herself guilty.

    -- The people's procuratorates will pay greater heed to the self-defense of criminal suspects at the stage of approval for arrest. Procurators themselves should interrogate suspects when there are clues or evidences that prove the possibility of such serious violations of law as extortion of confession and collecting evidence through the use of force. If the criminal suspects request such an interrogation, the procurators should do so as required.

    -- Relevant mechanisms to facilitate the work of lawyers during criminal proceedings will be improved. When defense lawyers proffer written materials and evidence maintaining that no crime has been committed, an arrest is unnecessary, or the suspect should not be detained, or there have been violations of law in the investigation, the procurators must examine them seriously. When necessary, procurators may consult lawyers in person. The procurators should state clearly in the arrest warrant whether they are going to accept the lawyer's opinions and evidences and their reasons for doing so.

    -- The venues of law enforcement and case investigation by public security organs will be transformed according to defined standards step by step. The Standards for Venues of Law Enforcement and Case Investigation of Public Security Organs will be implemented strictly. Case investigation areas must be separated physically from other areas, and the function rooms of the case investigation areas will be established in line with the procedures of case investigation, where permanent sound and video recording as well as video surveillance systems will be installed for real-time monitoring and control over the whole course of law enforcement and investigation to prevent any violation of the legitimate rights and interests of citizens.

    -- The scope of application of the system of probationary suspension and community correction according to law will be expanded, appropriately reducing the application of imprisonment and clearly defining the scope of non-imprisonment punishment; improving the system of community-based correction, and enriching the contents of community-based correction, correction by education and measures to aid convicts in financial difficulties.

    -- Strengthening efforts in investigation and punishment of cases committed by state functionaries involving violations of a citizen's personal rights such as illegal detention by taking advantage of their functions and powers.

    (2) Rights of detainees

    China will further strengthen supervision over criminal proceedings, punishment execution and supervision, so as to guarantee the legal rights of detainees.

    -- Guaranteeing the rights and humane treatment of the inmates and improving legal stipulations concerning the management of prisons. The system of a bed for one inmate will be gradually adopted and medical care for prison inmates will be socialized so as to ensure an inmate to get timely treatment when ill.

    -- Preventing unnecessary detention. After a suspect or defendant is held in custody, the related people's procuratorate should review the necessity of the detention. Once it concludes the detention is not necessary, it should advise the organ that investigates the case to release the suspect or defendant, or change the compulsory measure adopted.

    -- Strengthening supervision over the time limit of criminal detention. The people's procuratorates should conduct supervision over the organs of criminal investigation to strictly implement the system of detention change, the warning and notifying system when the time limit of detention is going to expire and the accountability system for overdue imprisonment. Efforts will be made to prevent and settle cases involving prolonged detentions and urge the investigation organs to conclude cases that have long exceeded the time limit of detention.

    -- Improving mechanisms to guarantee the rights of detainees. The systems of physical examination for detainees when they are taken into custody, regular body surface examinations for detainees and notification of the rights and obligations of the detainees and emergency alarming will be strictly implemented, so will the system of interrogation and remand of criminal suspects. The systems of detainees' security risk assessment, psychological intervention and investigation and handling of their complaints will be improved. So will the system of inviting special supervisors to inspect the detention houses. Regulations regarding detainees' request to see the resident procurators, meetings between detainees and resident procurators and the establishment of procurator mailboxes will be improved to prevent and investigate violations of the rights of detainees, such as physical punishment, torture and insult by people working in the detention houses.

    -- Improving the system of examination and investigation in case of the death of a detainee in prisons and detention houses.

    (3) Right to fair trial

    -- China will improve the legal stipulations regarding judicial proceeding to guarantee litigants' right to fair trial.

    -- Guaranteeing criminal defendants the rights to plead, receive legal aid and request an avoidance (of a judge or witness).

    -- Guaranteeing the personal rights and right of defense of lawyers when they perform their duties.

    -- Further improving the system to have witnesses and expert witnesses appear in court and the system of protecting the witnesses.

    -- Improving the system of eliminating illegal evidence; all confessions by suspects and defendants extorted by torture or other illegal methods, as well as testimonies and statements of witnesses or victims collected by violence, threat or other illegal means will be eliminated and not used in working out the verdict. In addition, the stipulations on evidences used to examine and decide cases of death penalty will be strictly observed, and more strict standards will be adopted in this regard.

    -- Implementing the Decisions of the Supreme People's Court on Audio-Visual Recordings of Court Trials. The system of producing audio-visual recordings of the whole process of suspect interrogating in major cases will be established.

    -- Continuing to push forward standardized measurement of penalty. The people's procuratorates will make suggestions on penalty measurement to the people's courts when handling criminal cases. The discretion in penalty measurement will be institutionalized. Guidelines on penalty measurement by the people's courts will be worked out, so will regulations of the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate and the Ministry of Public Security on standardizing procedures of penalty measurement to guarantee openness and fairness in penalty measurement.

    -- Observing more stringent judicial procedures for death penalty and review of death penalty. China will improve the trial procedures of death penalty cases. The trial of all death penalty cases of second instance will be open to the public. The review of death penalty should include the questioning of the defendant, and listening to the opinions of his/her attorney if the attorney so demands. Legal supervision by the Supreme People's Procuratorate over the review of death penalty will be strengthened. The Supreme People's Court will publicize typical cases to clarify the norms of application of death penalty.

    -- Amending the Law of Civil Procedure. China will further improve the procedures of bringing an action, case acceptance and pre-trial preparation, establish small-claim and public-interest litigation systems and improve the systems of preservation, evidence, service of litigation document, publicizing of court rulings and trial supervision to protect the litigants' litigation rights.

    -- Amending Administrative Procedure Law. China will further improve the rules regarding the acceptance of administrative cases, examination procedures and proofs to guarantee the right of individuals and organizations to legal aid in cases of administrative malfeasance.

    (4) Freedom of religious belief

    China upholds the principle of freedom of religious belief stipulated in the Constitution and strictly implements the Regulations on Religious Affairs to guarantee citizens' freedom of religious belief.

    -- Protecting citizens from being forced to believe in or not to believe in any religion, and from discrimination due to religious belief.

    -- Protecting normal religious activities according to law.

    -- Improving the management measures of pilgrimage. China will improve the organization and management of, and service to pilgrimage to provide convenience and guarantee for Muslims to complete their pilgrimage smoothly.

    -- Encouraging religious believers to carry out charity activities.

    -- Helping the religious circles resolve difficulties encountered in the construction of some projects. The state will provide financial support to the construction of new school buildings in the Buddhist Academy of China and the improvement and expansion of the China Islamic Institute. The same support will be rendered to the rebuilding and expansion of venues for religious activities of the Tibetan-inhabited areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai provinces. Financial support will also be extended to the post-earthquake rebuilding of venues for religious activities in Yushu, Qinghai Province, and to mosques damaged during natural disasters.

    -- Working out methods for implementing the relevant regulations on social security for religious staff.

    -- Promoting cultural exchanges in religion. China will support friendly exchanges between Chinese religious circles and foreign religious organizations.

    (5) Right to be informed

    The Chinese government will further efforts to make government affairs public, to expand the scope of right to be informed by proceeding from the angles of laws, regulations and policies, so as to enhance the level of guarantee to citizens' right to information.

    -- Pushing forward the disclosure of government information. China will implement the Provisions on the Disclosure of Government Information and the Opinions of the State Council on Strengthening Government Administration Based on the Rule of Law. The government will make public any government information that does not involve state or trade secrets, or individual privacy. Priority will be given to the disclosure of government information in the areas of financial budgeting, allocation of public resources, approval and implementation of major construction projects, and construction of social welfare undertakings.

    -- The state will make greater efforts in making public of administrative work. The system of making public of administrative work will be implemented in all government departments providing public services, and they will be asked to make public in accordance with the law the basis, prerequisites, requirements, progress and result of government administrative work, and provide adequate information.

    -- Proactive efforts will be made to steadily push forward the disclosure of auditing information. The state will uphold and improve the system of announcing auditing results, and standardize the form, content and procedure of such announcement; and uphold and improve the system of announcing the results of phased auditing of special-purpose auditing project and results of investigation of major cases.

    -- The government press conference system, spokesperson system and spokesperson system for Party committees will be improved continuously.

    -- The system of keeping the public informed of leading officials' appointment and dismissal will be established and improved. Vacant leadership positions and related job responsibilities, as well as basic information of the candidates will be announced in due time to promote the institutionalization and standardization of appointment and dismissal of officials.

    -- The state will standardize and supervise the disclosure of work of enterprises and institutions that provide public services, including hospitals, schools, public transportation and public utilities. Priority will be given to the announcement of such contents as job responsibilities, service commitments, services for charges, job specifications, work discipline and channels of supervision.

    -- Effective measures will be taken to make enterprise affairs known to employees. By 2015, the system of disclosing enterprise affairs to their employees will be implemented in all state-owned and collective enterprises and state- and collective-controlled enterprises where trade union organizations are established, and in more than 80% of non-public enterprises with trade union organizations, so as to ensure the employees' right to be informed.

    -- The state will make efforts to improve the transparency of village affairs. The emphasis will be placed on the disclosure of financial affairs, and a platform for open village affairs will be set up.

    (6) Right to participate

    Further efforts will be made to improve the systems, diversify the forms and open up the channels of democracy, to expand citizens' orderly participation in political affairs.

    - Implementing the Electoral Law, and guarantee citizens' right to vote and to be elected.

    - Ensuring and supporting the participation of non-Communist parties and figures without party affiliation in the exercise of state power, consultation on major state policies and choice of state leaders, administration of state affairs, and formulation and implementation of state policies, laws and regulations.

    - Soliciting public opinion when formulating laws or regulations that concern major public interests and the vital interests of the people.

    - Continuously supporting the trade unions, the Communist Youth League, the women's federations and other mass organizations in their participation in social management and provision of public services in accordance with the law. The government will wholeheartedly gather opinions from the mass organizations when formulating and amending relevant laws, regulations and public policies.

    - Encouraging orderly participation by social organizations in social construction. The Law on Philanthropy will be formulated, and the Regulations on the Registration of Social Organizations, the Interim Regulations on the Registration of Private Non-enterprise Entities and the Regulations on the Management of Foundations will be amended. The government will standardize activities of voluntary services and expedite the development of voluntary services.

    - Improving the system of workers' congress and the system of directors and supervisors from among workers, and giving support to trade unions in participating in the management of enterprises and public institutions on behalf of workers and staff. Efforts will be made to gradually realize the goal of full coverage of the system of workers' congress in state and collective enterprises and state- and collective-controlled enterprises where trade union organizations are established, and in more than 80% of non-public enterprises with trade union organizations.

    - Further developing and improving the system of self-governance at the primary level of society.

    (7) Right to be heard

    The government will take effective measures to ensure that all channels of self-expression are unblocked, and citizens' freedom of speech and right to be heard are protected in accordance with the law.

    - The state respects and guarantees the rights of all parties and groups and deputies from all ethic groups and all walks of life in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) to voice their opinions, to go on inspection tours, to put forward motions, to reflect social conditions and public opinion, and to take part in investigation and inspection activities.

    - Through communication with the public in various ways, state organs and their functionaries will earnestly learn what they want and solicit their opinions.

    - The mechanism whereby the masses express their wishes will be improved, and the channels for people to make petitions in the form of letters and personal visits will remain unblocked and be broadened. Such practices as Green Post, online complaints, special telephone lines, video complaints and agencies which make complaints on behalf of others will be promoted and improved so as to ensure the implementation of the Regulations on Petitions in the Form of Letters and Visits. The state will persist in requiring leading cadres at all levels to read letters from the people and make comments or issue instructions concerning them, and improve the system in which leading cadres receive visitors who come to make complaints, and visit grassroots localities. Efforts will be made to enhance the construction, promotion and application of the complaint information system. We will further strengthen the building of a state-level complaint-handling center, and set up a comprehensive platform to deal with complaints quickly and efficiently.

    - The state will guarantee employees' right to be heard. The making and revision of labor rules and regulations in enterprises will be discussed at workers' congress in advance, so as to ensure that channels are unblocked for employees to express appeals concerning their interests.

    - The state will strengthen institutional guarantees for the legitimate rights and interests of news agencies and journalists, ensuring in accordance with the law journalists' rights to be informed, to gather materials, to publish, to criticize, and to supervise, and safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of news agencies, journalists, editors and other persons concerned.

    (8) Right to oversee

    The government will make unremitting efforts to improve the system of supervision, strengthen restraints on and supervision over the exercise of power, and earnestly guarantee citizens' right of democratic supervision.

    - Strengthening the supervision over the people's governments, people's courts and people's procuratorates by people's congresses and their standing committees at all levels, and strengthening supervision over leading cadres, so as to ensure the correct exercise of power.

    - Giving full play to the CPPCC's role in democratic supervision. Efforts will be intensified to strengthen supervision over the implementation of major policies and the performance of state organs and their functionaries by all participating parties and groups, and people from all ethnic groups and all walks of life in the CPPCC in the forms of making proposals and voicing criticisms.

    - Improving the system of supervision over regulations and normative documents. Efforts will be made in seriously studying and handling suggestions by individuals and organizations for reviewing such regulations and documents in accordance with relevant rules. Work will be done to strengthen the filing and examination work regarding regulations and normative documents, so as to prevent illegitimate increase of the obligations of any individuals and organizations.

    - Intensifying the supervision and restraint over the power of administrative examination and approval by pushing forward the publicizing of the process and results of such examination and approval, and strengthening monitoring throughout the whole process.

    - Strictly implementing the administrative accountability system prescribed by the Civil Servant Law and the Law on Administrative Supervision, intensifying investigations regarding the accountability in accidents in production safety, food and drug quality, land requisition and environmental pollution, and punishing in accordance with the law those who infringe on the interests of the people because of dereliction of duty or malfeasance.

    - Amending the Measures for Offence Reporting Work and Regulations on the Protection of Whistle-Blowers. The violations reported, the situation of the report and relevant information about informants will be kept confidential; acts obstructing, repressing and avenging the informants will be corrected timely so as to protect their legitimate rights and interests.

    - Guaranteeing the right of citizens and social organizations in exercising supervision over administrative organs in accordance with the law by applying for administrative reconsideration or instituting administrative litigation.

    - Expanding social supervision by enhancing the functions of special inspectors, supervisors and examiners, and strengthening the public's supervision over administrative, trial and procuratorial organs.

    - Encouraging news media to play their unique role in supervision by public opinion, and opening up the channels for people to criticize, give advice to, complain of, accuse and impeach state organs and state functionaries.

     

     

    三、少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人和残疾人的权利

    国家继续采取措施,切实保障少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人和残疾人的合法权益。

    (一)少数民族权利

    中国是统一的多民族国家,各民族一律平等,国家保障各少数民族的合法权益。

    ——依法保障少数民族平等参与管理国家和社会事务的权利。保证在中央和地方国家权力机关、行政机关、审判机关和检察机关都有相应数量的少数民族成员。对少数民族公民报考公务员依法给予照顾。

    ——重视培养和使用各类少数民族人才。加大少数民族党政人才培养选拔力度。支持民族地区实施国家高技能人才振兴计划和农村人才支持计划。继续免费为民族地区农村定向培养全科医生和招聘职业医师,培养民族医药专业人才。

    ——保障少数民族均等享受公共服务的权利。不断增强民族自治地方公共服务能力,使民族地区的城乡居民收入、义务教育、医疗卫生、社会保障等与全国平均水平差距明显缩小,上学、看病、饮水、通讯、就业等方面存在的问题明显缓解,牧区、边境地区、人口较少民族聚居地区和少数民族贫困地区农牧民生产生活条件明显改善。

    ——保障少数民族的经济发展权利。落实促进内蒙古、新疆、广西、宁夏、西藏五个自治区经济社会发展以及支持其他民族地区发展的政策和专项规划,促进民族地区经济发展主要指标增速高于全国平均水平。继续制定实施扶持人口较少民族发展、兴边富民行动、少数民族事业发展等专项规划。在主要草原分布地区全面建立草原生态保护补助奖励机制,牧民收入增幅不低于本省(区)农民收入增幅。大力发展民族贸易和民族特需商品生产,落实有关优惠政策,保障少数民族生产生活的特殊需要。重视民族地区生态环境保护。

    ——加快发展民族教育。公共教育资源向民族地区倾斜,加快发展学前教育,支持边境县和民族自治地方贫困县义务教育学校标准化建设,加强民族地区寄宿制学校建设,积极稳妥推进双语教育,大力推进职业教育,加大师资培养培训力度,加强教育对口支援。

    ——保障少数民族的文化权利。加大对少数民族特色文化保护工作的扶持力度,加强对少数民族文化遗产的保护,对濒危项目和年老体弱的代表性传承人实施抢救性保护,对少数民族非物质文化遗产集聚区实施整体性保护。支持民族传统体育事业发展。

    ——依法保障少数民族学习使用和发展本民族语言文字的权利。推进少数民族语言文字的规范化、标准化和信息处理。建设中国少数民族濒危语言数据库。

    (二)妇女权利

    实施妇女权益保障法,促进男女平等,保障妇女合法权益。

    ——继续促进妇女平等参与管理国家和社会事务。逐步提高女性在全国和地方各级人大代表、政协委员中的比例。省、市两级人大、政府、政协领导成员和县级政府领导成员中各配备1名以上的女性。逐步提高县(处)级以上各级地方政府和工作部门领导班子中女性担任正职的比例。逐步提高企业董事会、监事会成员及管理层中女性比例。逐步提高职工代表大会、教职工代表大会中女代表比例。在村民委员会、居民委员会成员中要有一定比例的女性成员。

    ——努力消除就业性别歧视。落实男女同工同酬。加强女职工劳动保护,适时修改女职工特殊劳动保护标准。推进已建工会的企业签订并履行女职工权益保护专项集体合同。

    ——保障妇女平等获得经济资源和参与经济发展的权利。确保农村妇女享有与男子平等的土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权。

    ——提高妇女生殖健康服务水平。完善城乡生育保障制度,生育保险覆盖所有用人单位。提高孕产妇住院分娩率,降低孕产妇死亡率。提高妇女常见病筛查率,提高宫颈癌和乳腺癌早诊早治率,降低死亡率。逐步为农村育龄妇女孕前和孕早期免费增补叶酸及多种营养素。推进免费孕前优生健康检查试点,为农村计划怀孕妇女提供孕前优生健康教育等免费技术服务。

    ——预防和制止针对妇女的家庭暴力。制定反家庭暴力法。完善预防和制止家庭暴力多部门合作机制,以及预防、制止和救助一体化工作机制。

    ——打击拐卖妇女犯罪行为。坚持预防为主、打防结合、以人为本、综合治理,提高全社会的反拐意识和妇女的防范意识,为被解救妇女提供身心康复服务,帮助被解救妇女回归社会。

    ——加强性别统计工作。完善对经济和社会发展领域的分性别数据的收集和发布。(未完待续)

    (三)儿童权利

    实施未成年人保护法,推进儿童福利、学前教育、家庭教育等立法进程,根据儿童最大利益原则,切实保障儿童的生存、发展、受保护和参与的权利。

    ——保障儿童健康权。不断降低婴儿和5岁以下儿童死亡率。严重多发致残的出生缺陷发生率逐步下降,减少出生缺陷所致残疾。低出生体重发生率控制在5%以下。中西部城市和东部地区适龄儿童国家免疫规划疫苗接种率达到95%,中西部农村地区达到90%。实施农村义务教育学生营养改善计划。中小学生普遍达到《国家学生体质健康标准》的基本要求,耐力、力量、速度等体能素质明显提高。学生在校期间每天至少参加1小时的体育锻炼活动。控制中小学生视力不良、龋齿、超重或者肥胖、营养不良发生率。

    ——加强校车和校园安全管理。

    ——保障儿童享有闲暇和娱乐的权利。在城乡社区建设为儿童及其家庭提供游戏、娱乐、教育、卫生、社会心理支持等服务的儿童服务场所。街道和乡镇配备1名以上专职或者兼职儿童社会工作者。

    ——保护儿童参与权利。根据儿童身心发展程度,鼓励并支持儿童参与家庭和社会生活,创造有利于儿童参与的社会环境。

    ——消除对女童的歧视。落实计划生育女孩家庭奖励扶助政策,试行贫困地区女孩家庭的扶助制度。禁止非医学需要的胎儿性别鉴定和选择性别人工终止妊娠行为。

    ——逐步扩大儿童福利惠及面。完善孤儿保障制度,提高孤儿的家庭寄养率和收养率。逐步将无人抚养儿童、患有重病、罕见病儿童和重残儿童纳入保障体系。提高0-6岁残疾儿童抢救性康复率。保障受艾滋病影响儿童和服刑人员未满18周岁子女的生活、受教育、医疗等权利。增加孤儿养护、流浪儿童保护和残疾儿童康复的专业服务机构数量。

    ——保护儿童人身权利。严厉打击拐卖、虐待、遗弃、利用儿童进行乞讨等侵害儿童人身权利的违法犯罪行为。保护儿童免遭一切形式的性侵犯。为被解救儿童提供身心康复服务,妥善安置被解救儿童。

    ——禁止使用童工和对儿童的经济剥削。依法严肃惩处使用童工和对儿童进行经济剥削的违法行为。

    ——完善未成年人刑事案件诉讼程序。建立附条件不起诉制度和犯罪记录封存制度。做好犯罪未成年人社区矫正工作。保障未成年人依法获得法律服务和法律援助。

    (四)老年人权利

    实施老年人权益保障法,逐步完善老年人社会保障制度,推进老年人服务体系建设,保障老年人合法权益。

    ——健全覆盖城乡居民的社会养老保障体系。政府为60岁以上农村居民和城镇非就业居民提供基础养老金,每年为农村60岁以上只有一个子女或者两个女孩的父母发放奖励扶助金,初步实现全国老年人人人享有基本养老保障。

    ——完善老年人优待办法。积极为老年人提供各种形式的照顾和优先、优待服务,逐步提高老年人的社会福利水平。

    ——健全家庭养老支持政策。完善老年人口户籍迁移管理政策,为老年人随赡养人迁徙提供条件。健全家庭养老保障和照料服务扶持政策。

    ——实施《社会养老服务体系建设规划(2011-2015年)》。到2015年,增加日间照料床位和机构养老床位342万张。支持民办非营利养老机构建设。

    ——完善老年人基本医疗保障体系。基层医疗卫生服务机构为辖区内65岁以上老年人开展健康管理服务,建立健康档案。

    ——丰富老年人精神文化生活。加大对老年大学建设的财政投入,扩大老年大学办学规模。增加老年公共文化产品供给。组织老年人参加全民健身活动。为老年志愿服务活动提供便利。扩大老年人的社会参与,到2015年,成立老年协会的城镇社区达到95%以上,农村社区达到80%以上。

    ——推动建设老年友好型城市和老年宜居社区。全面推行城乡建设涉老工程技术标准规范,以及无障碍设施改造和新建小区老龄设施配套建设规划标准。

    ——拓展老年人法律援助渠道。重点为高龄、独居、失能和行动不便老年人提供维权服务。

    (五)残疾人权利

    发展残疾人事业,完善残疾人社会保障和服务体系,保障残疾人的合法权益。

    ——实施残疾人权益保障法。健全相关的配套法规。制定无障碍环境建设条例,研究制定残疾人康复条例,研究修改残疾人教育条例。

    ——将城乡残疾人普遍按规定纳入基本养老保险和基本医疗保险。建立贫困残疾人生活补助和重度残疾人护理补贴制度,为残疾人的基本生活提供稳定的制度性保障。

    ——全面开展社区康复服务。通过实施重点康复工程,帮助1300万残疾人得到不同程度的康复。组织供应500万件各类辅助器具,为有需求的残疾人适配基本型辅助器具。为智力、精神和重度残疾人托养服务提供160万人次的补助。

    ——提高残疾人受教育水平。保障适龄残疾儿童普遍接受义务教育。推动残疾儿童以随班就读方式接受义务教育。为残疾人提供与其需求和受教育能力相适应的教育。发展残疾儿童学前康复教育、残疾人职业教育,促进残疾人接受高中阶段教育和高等教育。减少残疾人青壮年文盲。

    ——稳定和扩大残疾人就业。为有就业需求的残疾人提供就业服务和职业技能培训。到2015年,城镇残疾人新增就业80万人。

    ——加强农村残疾人扶贫开发。扶持800万农村贫困残疾人改善生活状况,增加收入,提高发展能力。为80万农村残疾人提供实用技术培训。继续实施“阳光安居工程”,改善农村贫困残疾人的居住条件。

    ——免费或者优惠向残疾人开放各类公共文化场所。鼓励有条件的地区以公共图书馆为依托,建立盲人电子阅览室。免费或者优惠向残疾人开放公共体育设施,开展适合残疾人身心特点的群众性文化体育活动。

    ——加快无障碍建设与改造。在全国创建无障碍建设市、县、区。加强铁路等公共交通工具的无障碍设施建设。加强信息无障碍建设。开展残疾人家庭无障碍设施改造,为贫困残疾人家庭提供改造补助。

    ——扩大盲文出版物出版规模。加强盲文出版基地建设,实现年生产盲文书刊1600种、70万册的规模。开发盲文乐谱、工具书、期刊、数字有声读物,出版盲人百科全书等图书。

    ——健全残疾人法律救助工作协调机制。完善残疾人法律救助制度,依法维护残疾人权益。

    III. Rights of Ethnic Minorities, Women, Children, the Elderly and the Disabled

    China will take further measures to protect the legitimate rights and interests of ethnic minorities, women, children, elderly people and the disabled.

    (1) Rights of ethnic minorities

    China is a unified multi-ethnic country, where all ethnic groups are equal, and the state protects the lawful rights and interests of ethnic minorities.

    - The right of ethnic minorities to participate in the management of state and social affairs on an equal footing is guaranteed by the state according to law. The state will make sure that minority groups have a proportionate number of representatives in organs of state power and administrative, judicial and procuratorate organs at both the central and local levels. Ethnic-minority citizens will enjoy favorable treatment when they apply to take the national civil service examinations.

    - The state attaches importance to the training and utilization of talented people from ethnic minorities. Greater efforts are made to cultivate and select ethnic-minority personnel for Party and administrative work. The state supports areas inhabited by ethnic minorities in compact communities in their implementation of the national revitalization program for highly-skilled personnel and the support program for talented people in rural areas. The state will continue to train general medical practitioners and employ professional medical practitioners for rural areas in places where ethnic minorities live in compact communities on the state budget, and cultivate professionals of ethnic-minority medicine.

    - The state guarantees that ethnic minorities enjoy equal right to public services. The state constantly strengthens the capacity of public services in ethnic autonomous areas. The gaps in the incomes of urban and rural residents, compulsory education, medical care, social security between ethnic-minority areas and the national average level will be significantly narrowed; existing problems in education, medical care, drinking water, communication, employment and other areas will be significantly alleviated; the production and living conditions of the farmers and herdsmen in pasturing areas, border areas, areas inhabited by ethnic minorities with small populations, and impoverished ethnic-minority areas will be improved significantly.

    - The right of ethnic minorities to economic development is guaranteed. The state will implement policies and special programs for promoting the socio-economic development of the five autonomous regions, i.e. Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Guangxi, Ningxia and Tibet, and for supporting the development of other ethnic-minority regions, and work to make sure that the main indices of economic development for ethnic-minority regions are higher than those of the national average. The state will continue to formulate and implement special programs to support the development of minority ethnic groups with small populations, vitalize border areas and bring prosperity to their residents, and develop special undertakings of ethnic minorities and other programs. In major pastoral areas, the state will establish a subsidy and bonus mechanism for the protection of steppe ecosystem, guaranteeing that the income growth of herdsmen is not lower than that of the farmers in the same province (autonomous region). Vigorous efforts will be made to promote ethnic-minority trade and the production of ethnic consumer products, implement relevant preferential policies, and satisfy the special production and life needs of ethnic minorities. Emphasis will be put on the protection of the ecological environment in ethnic-minority regions.

    - Education for ethnic minorities is to be promoted. The state will transfer more public education resources to ethnic-minority regions, quicken the development of preschool education, support the standardized construction of compulsory-education schools in border counties and poverty-stricken counties of ethnic autonomous areas, strengthen the construction of boarding schools in ethnic-minority regions, actively and steadily promote bilingual education, vigorously promote the development of vocational education, make greater efforts in the training and cultivation of teachers, and strengthen pair-up assistance in education.

    - Cultural rights of ethnic minorities are guaranteed. The state will make greater efforts to protect the special cultures of ethnic-minority groups, strengthen the protection of their cultural relics, carry out emergency protection of endangered projects and representative inheritors who are aged or otherwise feeble, and implement overall protection for areas where intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities is concentrated. Traditional sports of ethnic minorities will also be given state support.

    - Ethnic minorities' right to learn, use and develop their own spoken and written languages is guaranteed in accordance with the law. The state will promote the standardization and information processing of the spoken and written languages of ethnic minorities, and build databases of China's endangered ethnic-minority languages.

    (2) Women's rights

    China implements the Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests, promotes gender equality, and guarantees the lawful rights and interests of women.

    - The state will continue its efforts to promote women's equal participation in the management of state and social affairs. The state will gradually increase the proportion of women representatives in the national and local people's congresses and political consultative conferences, and make sure that the people's congresses, governments, and political consultative conferences at the provincial and municipal levels as well as county-level governments include at least one female member in the leadership. The state will gradually increase the proportion of women holding principal positions in the leadership of local governments and departments at/above the county level, the proportion of women on boards of directors and boards of supervisors as well as the leadership of enterprises, and the proportion of women representatives at workers' conferences and faculty congresses. There should also be a certain proportion of women members in village committees and community committees.

    - The state makes efforts to eliminate gender discrimination in employment and realize equal payment for men and women doing the same work. The state will strengthen special labor protection for female workers, timely revise the standards of special labor protection for women workers, and encourage the signing and implementation of special collective contracts for the protection of female workers' rights and interests in enterprises that have established labor unions.

    - Women's right to having equal access to economic resources and to participating in economic development is guaranteed. The state will make sure that women in rural areas enjoy equal rights with men in the contracting and management of land, use of rural homesteads and distribution of collective income.

    - The level of reproductive health services for women will be raised. The state will improve the maternity service system in urban and rural areas, and make sure that maternity insurance covers all employing units. The state will increase the proportion of women giving birth in hospitals, lower mortality rate during delivery, increase the screening rate of common gynecological diseases, and increase the rate of early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer and breast cancer to lower the mortality rate in this regard. The state will gradually provide free folic acid and other nutrients to women of childbearing age in rural areas as a pre-gestational and early-pregnancy supplement, promote trial programs of free pre-gestational checkups, and provide free technical service to women who plan for pregnancy in rural areas, including relevant health care education.

    - The state will prevent and prohibit domestic violence against women. The state will formulate a law on domestic violence, and improve the inter-departmental cooperative mechanism for the prevention and prohibition of domestic violence, and the integrative work mechanism of prevention, prohibition and assistance.

    - The state will crack down on the crimes of abducting and trafficking in women. The state will stick to the principles which stress prevention as the major measure, integrate crackdown with prevention, put people first and exert comprehensive control, improve the vigilance of the whole society against abduction and women's precautionary awareness, provide physical and mental rehabilitation services to rescued women, and help them return to society.

    - The state will strengthen the statistical work on gender data, and improve the collecting and publishing of gender-specific data in the fields of economic and social development.

    (3) Children's rights

    China implements the Law on the Protection of Minors, promotes the legislation process regarding children's welfare, preschool education, family education and other issues, and effectively guarantees children's rights to life, development, protection and participation for their best interests.

    - Children's right to health is guaranteed. The state will constantly lower the mortality rates of infants and children under the age of five, and make sure to lower the rate of severe and frequently-occurring birth defects that lead to disabilities, and lower the disability rate due to birth defects. It will control the rate of low birth weight at under 5%. Ninety-five percent of the children in the country's central and western cities, and the entire eastern part will be vaccinated in the national immunization program, and the figure for rural areas in the central and western regions will reach 90%. The state will implement a nutrition enhancement program for students receiving compulsory education in rural areas, and make sure that students in primary and secondary schools generally reach the basic requirements of the National Standard of Students' Physical Health, and that students' endurance, strength, speed and other physical qualities realize significant improvement. During school time, students will be given at least one hour of sports and exercise every day, and the rates of nearsightedness, dental caries, obesity and malnutrition will be put under control.

    - Administration of school buses and campus safety will be strengthened.

    - Children's right to leisure and entertainment will be guaranteed. Children's services will be established in urban and rural areas to provide venues and facilities for games, recreation, education, health care, social and psychological support for children and their families. The state will make sure that at least one professional or part-time children's social worker is employed in a local community, village or town.

    - Children's right to participate will be protected. The state encourages and supports children's participation in family and social life according to the degree of their physical and psychological development, and works to create a favorable social environment for children's participation.

    - Discrimination against girls will be eliminated. The state will implement the reward-and-support policy for families with girls only, and try out support schemes for such families in impoverished areas. It bans identification of the sex of a fetus for other than medical purposes and termination of pregnancy in the case of a female fetus.

    - The state will gradually expand the coverage of children's welfare. The state will improve the security system for orphans, increase the proportions of fostered and adopted orphans, and gradually bring unsupported children, children with severe or rare diseases and severely disabled children into the security system. The state will increase the emergency rehabilitation rate of disabled children under six years old, and guarantee the rights to life, education, health care and other rights of AIDS-affected children and convicts' children under 18 years old. The state will increase the number of institutions providing professional services for the upbringing and protection of orphans, protection of homeless children and rehabilitation of disabled children.

    - Children's personal rights will be protected. The state will crack down on the abduction, maltreatment and abandonment of children, and the forcing of children into begging and other illegal activities and crimes that infringe upon the personal rights of children. The state will protect children from all forms of sexual abuse, and provide physical and psychological services to rescued children before properly resettling them.

    - The state will prohibit the employment of child labor and exploitation of children, and will severely punish such illegal activities according to law.

    - The legal proceedings in criminal cases involving juveniles will be improved. A conditional non-prosecution mechanism and criminal record sealing mechanism will be established. A good job will be done in community-based corrections of juvenile delinquents, and juveniles will be guaranteed legal service and assistance in accordance with the law.

    (4) Senior citizens' rights

    China implements the Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of the Elderly, gradually improves the old-age security system, pushes forward the construction of old-age service system, and guarantees the legitimate rights and interests of the elderly.

    - The state will improve the old-age social security system that covers both urban and rural residents. The government will provide basic pensions for rural residents and unemployed urban residents above 60 years old, and issue reward and support subsidies to parents in rural areas who are both above 60 and who have only one child or two daughters, preliminarily realizing universal coverage for all senior citizens.

    - The state will improve preferential treatment measures for the elderly, actively providing various forms of preferential treatment and prioritized and preferential services to the elderly, and gradually increasing the level of social welfare for senior citizens.

    - The state will improve the support policy for home-based old-age care. The state will improve the administrative policy of household registration transfer for elderly people, thus creating conditions for the transfer of senior citizens along with their providers. It will also improve policies that support and encourage home-based care and security services for elderly people.

    - The state implements the Program for the Construction of Old-age Social Service System (2011-2015). By 2015, the state will increase the number of beds in day-care facilities and nursing homes by 3,420,000, and extend support to the establishment of not-for-profit nursing homes by private businesses.

    - The state will improve the basic medical insurance for the elderly. Grassroots-level medical care services will provide health management services to local residents above 65 years old, and establish and keep health profiles for them.

    - The state will enrich senior citizens' cultural lives. The state will increase financial investment into the construction of colleges for senior citizens, enlarge the scale of such schools, increase the supply of public cultural products for the elderly, organize public fitness activities for them and provide convenience for their participation in voluntary programs. In order to promote senior citizens' participation in social life, the state will make sure that at least 95% of urban communities and 80% of rural communities have their own senior citizens' associations by 2015.

    - The state will promote the construction of elderly-friendly cities and livable communities for senior citizens. The state will comprehensively implement the technological standards of urban and rural construction projects related to senior citizens, as well as the standards of renovation of barrier-free facilities and the construction of facilities for the elderly in newly-built communities.

    - The state will expand channels of legal assistance for the elderly and the emphasis is to provide legal services to citizens of advanced age, and senior citizens who live alone, are disabled or have any other physical difficulty.

    (5) Rights and interests of the disabled

    China develops undertakings relating to the disabled, improves social security and services for them, and protects their lawful rights and interests.

    - The state will implement the Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of the Disabled and improve relevant supporting laws and regulations. The state will formulate regulations on the construction of barrier-free environments, research and formulate regulations on the rehabilitation of the disabled, and research and revise the regulations on education for the disabled.

    - The state will include the disabled people in both urban and rural areas in the basic endowment insurance and basic medical insurance according to relevant regulations. The state will establish a life subsidy system for the financially-challenged disabled population and nursing care allowances for the severely disabled, in an effort to supply a steady institutional guarantee for the basic life of the disabled.

    - The state will comprehensively carry out community-based rehabilitation services. The state will help 13 million disabled people obtain rehabilitation to various degrees through the implementation of key rehabilitation programs, organize the supply of five million pieces of supporting devices of various types and provide basic supporting devices for those in need. It will also provide subsidies on 1.6 million occasions for community or household services for people suffering from mental disabilities and diseases, as well as for seriously disabled people.

    - The state will raise the education level of the disabled. The state will make sure that school-age disabled children generally receive compulsory education. It will promote compulsory education for disabled children in such a way that they attend the same classes as other healthy children where convenient, providing education for disabled people that suits their needs and capacities. The state will develop pre-school rehabilitation education for disabled children and vocational education for the disabled, promoting senior high-school education and higher education for the disabled, and reducing illiteracy among the young and middle-aged disabled population.

    - The state will stabilize and expand employment for the disabled. The state will provide employment services and vocational training for disabled people who seek employment, and make sure that an additional 800,000 disabled people will be employed by 2015.

    - The state will strengthen development-oriented poverty reduction programs for the disabled population in rural areas. The state will help eight million needy disabled people in rural areas to improve their living conditions, increase their incomes and enhance their abilities for development. The state will provide skills training for 800,000 disabled people in rural areas, and continue to implement the "sunshine housing project" to improve the housing conditions of impoverished disabled people in rural areas.

    - The state will require public cultural facilities to give access to the disabled free of charge or at preferential rates. The state encourages the construction of digital reading rooms for the blind in public libraries in areas that are capable of doing so, opens public sports facilities to the disabled gratis or at preferential rates, and carries out mass cultural and sports activities that conform to the physical and psychological characteristics of the disabled.

    - The state will quicken the construction and renovation of barrier-free facilities. It will create barrier-free cities, counties and districts nationwide, strengthen the construction of barrier-free facilities of public transport including the railway, as well as the construction of information accessibility. The state will carry out renovation of barrier-free facilities for families of the disabled and subsidize those who have financial difficulties in the renovation.

    - The state will expand the scale of publications in braille. It will strengthen the construction of publishing bases of braille books, and realize the annual production goal of 700,000 copies of such books and periodicals in 1,600 titles. It will also develop music scores for the blind, as well as reference books, periodicals, digital audio books and encyclopedias for them.

    - The state will improve a coordinating work mechanism of legal assistance to the disabled. It will improve legal assistance to the disabled to protect their rights and interests by law.

     

     

    四、人权教育

    广泛开展各种形式的人权教育和培训,在全社会传播人权理念,普及人权知识。

    ——将人权教育纳入公务员培训计划。强化对公务人员的人权教育培训。支持人权研究机构编写人权培训教材,参与人权培训工作。

    ——加强中小学人权教育。将人权知识融入相关课程,纳入学校法制教育。开展适合青少年特点的人权教育活动,推动中小学依法治校和民主管理,营造尊重人权的教育环境。

    ——鼓励高等院校开设人权公选课程和专业课程。支持人权相关学科和专业建设,鼓励开展人权理论研究。

    ——鼓励并推动企事业单位普及人权知识,形成尊重和保障人权的企业文化。

    ——鼓励新闻媒体传播人权知识。提高全民人权意识,形成全社会重视人权的舆论氛围。

    ——发挥国家人权教育与培训基地的作用。到2015年,至少新增5个国家人权教育与培训基地。

     

     

    五、国际人权条约义务的履行和国际人权交流与合作

    中国继续认真履行已参加的国际人权条约,积极开展国际人权领域的交流与合作。

    (一)国际人权条约义务的履行

    重视国际人权文书对促进和保护人权的重要作用。及时向相关条约机构提交履约报告,与条约机构开展建设性对话,并充分考虑条约机构提出的意见与建议,结合中国国情对合理可行的建议加以采纳和落实。

    ——撰写《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》第六次履约报告,并提交联合国禁止酷刑委员会审议。

    ——撰写《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》第十四次履约报告,并提交联合国消除种族歧视委员会审议。

    ——更新中国提交的《经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》第二次履约报告,并参加联合国经济、社会和文化权利委员会对报告的审议会议。

    ——参加联合国儿童权利委员会对中国提交的《儿童权利公约》第三、四次合并履约报告的审议会议。

    ——参加联合国儿童权利委员会对中国《儿童权利公约关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题的任择议定书》首次提交的履约报告的审议会议。

    ——参加联合国消除对妇女歧视委员会对中国提交的《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》第七、八次合并履约报告的审议会议。

    ——参加联合国残疾人权利委员会对中国提交的《残疾人权利公约》首次履约报告的审议会议。

    ——继续稳妥推进行政和司法改革,为批准《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》做准备。

    (二)国际人权领域的交流与合作

    中国致力于在平等和相互尊重的基础上,开展国际人权交流与合作,推动国际人权事业健康发展。

    ——认真落实联合国人权理事会对中国首次国别审查的有关合理建议,筹备并积极参加第二次国别审查工作。

    ——深入参与联合国人权机制工作,推动联合国人权理事会以公正、客观和非选择方式处理人权问题。

    ——继续与联合国人权特别机制开展合作,认真答复特别机制来函;根据接待能力并兼顾各类人权平衡的原则,视情况考虑邀请特别报告员访华。

    ——继续与联合国人权事务高级专员办公室保持良好合作关系。

    ——继续在平等和相互尊重的基础上与有关国家开展人权对话与交流,与发展中国家加强人权领域磋商与合作。

    ——继续参与亚欧非正式人权研讨会等亚太地区、次区域框架下的人权活动。

     

     

    六、实施和监督

    《行动计划》由国务院新闻办公室和外交部牵头的国家人权行动计划联席会议机制负责实施、监督和评估。

    ——中央和国家机关各有关部门、各级地方政府应高度重视,结合各部门工作职责和各地区特点,采取切实有效的措施完成《行动计划》确定的各项目标任务。

    ——国家人权行动计划联席会议机制开展阶段性调研、检查和终期评估,并公布评估报告。

    ——在实施《行动计划》过程中,尊重和发挥人民群众的主动性、积极性和创造性。创新社会管理机制,发挥社会组织在人权保障中的建设性作用。

    ——将《行动计划》作为人权教育和培训的重要内容,切实提高实施《行动计划》的自觉性。

    ——鼓励新闻媒体在《行动计划》的宣传、实施和监督方面发挥积极作用。

    IV. Human Rights Education

    China will carry out extensive human rights education and training in various forms, and promote human rights awareness and publicize human rights knowledge throughout the Chinese society.

    - China will include human rights education in the training programs of civil servants to strengthen human rights education and training for civil servants. The state supports human rights research institutes in their efforts to develop teaching materials for training in human rights and participate in the training work.

    - China will strengthen human rights education in primary and middle schools. The state will make sure that human rights knowledge is integrated into relevant courses and included in the legal education curriculum. It will also carry out human rights promotional activities that suit juveniles, promote school management by law and democratic administration, and create an education environment that honors human rights.

    - China will encourage institutions of higher learning to offer public courses and specialized courses on human rights, support the development of related disciplines and majors, and encourage studies on human rights theories.

    - China will encourage and promote the publicity of human rights knowledge in enterprises and public institutions, and develop corporate cultures that honor and protect human rights.

    - China will encourage the dissemination of human rights knowledge via the media. It will enhance human rights awareness among the whole populace to create an atmosphere of public opinion that human rights is emphasized by all.

    - China will give full play to the role of national human rights education and training bases. By 2015, at least five new such bases will be opened.

     

     

    V. Fulfillment of Obligations to International Human Rights Conventions, and Exchanges and Cooperation in the Field of International Human Rights

    China continues to earnestly fulfill its obligations to the international human rights conventions to which it has acceded, and actively conducts exchanges and cooperation in the field of international human rights.

    (1) Fulfillment of obligations to international human rights conventions

    China cherishes the important role played by international instruments on human rights in promoting and protecting human rights. It submits timely reports on implementing the conventions to the treaty bodies concerned, holds constructive dialogues with these treaty bodies, takes into full consideration the proposals raised by them, and adopts rational and feasible ones in the light of China's actual conditions.

    - China completed the sixth report on implementing the "Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment," and submitted it to the United Nations Committee against Torture for consideration.

    - China completed the 14th report on implementing the "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination," and submitted it to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination for consideration.

    - China renewed the second report on implementing the "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights," and participated in the deliberation meeting held by the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

    - China attended the deliberation meeting held by the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning China's third and fourth combined report on implementing the "Convention on the Rights of the Child."

    - China attended the deliberation meeting held by the Committee on the Rights of the Child on China's first report on implementing the "Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict."

    - China attended the deliberation meeting held by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women on China's seventh and eighth combined report on implementing the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women."

    - China attended the deliberation meeting held by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on China's first report on implementing the "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities."

    - China has continued to carry out administrative and judicial reforms and prepare the ground for approval of the "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights."

    (2) Exchanges and cooperation in the field of international human rights

    China is committed to holding exchanges and cooperation in the field of international human rights and promoting the healthy development of international human rights on the basis of equality and mutual respect.

    - China implements the related suggestions of United Nations Human Rights Council's (HRC) first Universal Periodic Review for China, prepares for and actively participates in the second Universal Periodic Review.

    - China takes an active part in the work of the HRC, and helps that body to solve human rights problems in a fair, objective and non-alternative way.

    - China continues its cooperation with the Special Procedures of the United Nations Human Rights Council, answers letters from it, and considers inviting special reporters to visit China while taking into account the principle of balancing various human rights and China's reception abilities.

    - China continues its good cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

    - China continues to hold dialogues and exchanges on human rights with various countries on the basis of equality and mutual respect. China also increases consultation and cooperation on human rights with developing countries.

    - China continues to participate in human rights activities in the framework of the Asian-Pacific Region and Sub-region, including the Informal ASEM Seminar on Human Rights.

     

     

    VI. Implementation and Supervision

    The joint meeting mechanism for the National Human Rights Action Plan, headed by the Information Office of the State Council and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is responsible for the implementation, supervision and evaluation of the Action Plan.

    - Related departments of the CPC Central Committee and Central Government, and local governments at all levels will attach the utmost importance to the Action Plan, and while taking into consideration the specific responsibilities of each department and regional characteristics, will take effective measures to achieve the aims and complete the tasks of the Action Plan.

    - The joint meeting mechanism for the National Human Rights Action Plan will conduct research and examination, and have a final evaluation and publicize the evaluation report.

    - In the process of implementing the Action Plan, China will respect and give full play to the public's initiative and creativity. It will innovate the social management mechanism and promote the constructive role of NGOs in human rights protection.

    - China will make the Action Plan an important part of human rights education and training, and effectively raise people's consciousness in implementing the Action Plan.

    - China will encourage the mass media to play a positive role in the publicizing, implementation and supervision of the Action Plan. 

     

     

     

    来源:新华网

     

     

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